format(x, ...)"format"(x, trim = FALSE, digits = NULL, nsmall = 0L, justify = c("left", "right", "centre", "none"), width = NULL, na.encode = TRUE, scientific = NA, big.mark = "", big.interval = 3L, small.mark = "", small.interval = 5L, decimal.mark = getOption("OutDec"), zero.print = NULL, drop0trailing = FALSE, ...)"format"(x, ..., justify = "none")"format"(x, ...)"format"(x, width = 12, ...)
FALSE, logical, numeric and complex values are right-justified to a common width: if
TRUEthe leading blanks for justification are suppressed.
x. The default,
getOption("digits"). This is a suggestion: enough decimal places will be used so that the smallest (in magnitude) number has this many significant digits, and also to satisfy
nsmall. (For the interpretation for complex numbers see
0 <= nsmall="" <="20.=>
defaultmethod: the minimum field width or
0for no restriction.
AsIs method: the maximum field width for non-character
NULL corresponds to the default
NAstrings be encoded? Note this only applies to elements of character vectors, not to numerical, complex nor logical
NAs, which are always encoded as
options("scipen")). Missing values correspond to the current default penalty.
prettyNum: that help page explains the details.
xcontaining character representations of the elements of the first argument
xin a common format, and in the current locale's encoding.For character, numeric, complex or factor
x, dims and dimnames are preserved on matrices/arrays and names on vectors: no other attributes are copied.If
xis a list, the result is a character vector obtained by applying
format.default(x, ...)to each element of the list (after
unlisting elements which are themselves lists), and then collapsing the result for each element with
paste(collapse = ", "). The defaults in this case are
trim = TRUE, justify = "none"since one does not usually want alignment in the collapsed strings.
formatis a generic function. Apart from the methods described here there are methods for dates (see
format.Date), date-times (see
format.POSIXct)) and for other classes such as
format.data.frame formats the data frame column by column,
applying the appropriate method of
format for each column.
Methods for columns are often similar to
as.character but offer
more control. Matrix and data-frame columns will be converted to
separate columns in the result, and character columns (normally all)
will be given class
format.factor converts the factor to a character vector and
then calls the default method (and so
format.AsIs deals with columns of complicated objects that
have been extracted from a data frame. Character objects are passed
to the default method (and so
width does not apply).
Otherwise it calls
toString to convert the object
to character (if a vector or list, element by element) and then
right-justifies the result.
Justification for character vectors (and objects converted to
character vectors by their methods) is done on display width (see
nchar), taking double-width characters and the rendering
of special characters (as escape sequences, including escaping
backslash but not double quote: see
account. Thus the width is as displayed by
FALSE) and not as displayed by
cat. Character strings
are padded with blanks to the display width of the widest. (If
na.encode = FALSE missing character strings are not included in
the width computations and are not encoded.)
Numeric vectors are encoded with the minimum number of decimal places
needed to display all the elements to at least the
significant digits. However, if all the elements then have trailing
zeroes, the number of decimal places is reduced until
nsmall is reached or at least one
element has a non-zero final digit; see also the argument
small.* etc, above. See the
digits >= 16.
Raw vectors are converted to their 2-digit hexadecimal representation
The internal code respects the option
getOption("OutDec") for the decimal mark, so if
this is set to something other than
"." then it takes precedence
format.infoindicates how an atomic vector would be formatted.
format(1:10) format(1:10, trim = TRUE) zz <- data.frame("(row names)"= c("aaaaa", "b"), check.names = FALSE) format(zz) format(zz, justify = "left") ## use of nsmall format(13.7) format(13.7, nsmall = 3) format(c(6.0, 13.1), digits = 2) format(c(6.0, 13.1), digits = 2, nsmall = 1) ## use of scientific format(2^31-1) format(2^31-1, scientific = TRUE) ## a list z <- list(a = letters[1:3], b = (-pi+0i)^((-2:2)/2), c = c(1,10,100,1000), d = c("a", "longer", "character", "string"), q = quote( a + b ), e = expression(1+x)) ## can you find the "2" small differences? (f1 <- format(z, digits = 2)) (f2 <- format(z, digits = 2, justify = "left", trim = FALSE)) f1 == f2 ## 2 FALSE, 4 TRUE
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