base (version 3.4.1)

# bitwise: Bitwise Logical Operations

## Description

Logical operations on integer vectors with elements viewed as sets of bits.

## Usage

```bitwNot(a)
bitwAnd(a, b)
bitwOr(a, b)
bitwXor(a, b)bitwShiftL(a, n)
bitwShiftR(a, n)```

## Arguments

a, b

integer vectors; numeric vectors are coerced to integer vectors.

n

non-negative integer vector of values up to 31.

## Value

An integer vector of length the longer of the arguments, or zero length if one is zero-length.

The output element is `NA` if an input is `NA` (after coercion) or an invalid shift.

## Details

Each element of an integer vector has 32 bits.

Pairwise operations can result in integer `NA`.

Shifting is done assuming the values represent unsigned integers.

The logical operators, `!`, `&`, `|`, `xor`. Notably these do work bitwise for `raw` arguments.

The classes `"octmode"` and `"hexmode"` whose implementation of the standard logical operators is based on these functions.

Package bitops has similar functions for numeric vectors which differ in the way they treat integers \(2^{31}\) or larger.

## Examples

Run this code
``````bitwNot(0:12) # -1 -2  ... -13
bitwAnd(15L, 7L) #  7
bitwOr (15L, 7L) # 15
bitwXor(15L, 7L) #  8
bitwXor(-1L, 1L) # -2

## The "same" for 'raw' instead of integer :
rr12 <- as.raw(0:12) ; rbind(rr12, !rr12)
c(r15 <- as.raw(15), r7 <- as.raw(7)) #  0f 07
r15 & r7    # 07
r15 | r7    # 0f
xor(r15, r7)# 08

bitwShiftR(-1, 1:31) # shifts of 2^32-1 = 4294967295
``````

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