```
require(stats)
## summarize by month
l <- split(airquality$Ozone, airquality$Month)
avgOz <- lapply(l, mean, na.rm=TRUE)
## merge result
airquality$avgOz <- rep(unlist(avgOz, use.names=FALSE), lengths(l))
## but this is safer and cleaner, but can be slower
airquality$avgOz <- unsplit(avgOz, airquality$Month)
## should always be true, except when a length does not fit in 32 bits
stopifnot(identical(lengths(l), vapply(l, length, integer(1L))))
## empty lists are not a problem
x <- list()
stopifnot(identical(lengths(x), integer()))
## nor are "list-like" expressions:
lengths(expression(u, v, 1+ 0:9))
## and we should dispatch to length methods
f <- c(rep(1, 3), rep(2, 6), 3)
dates <- split(as.POSIXlt(Sys.time() + 1:10), f)
stopifnot(identical(lengths(dates), vapply(dates, length, integer(1L))))
```

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