```
(r1 <- rank(x1 <- c(3, 1, 4, 15, 92)))
x2 <- c(3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5)
names(x2) <- letters[1:11]
(r2 <- rank(x2)) # ties are averaged
## rank() is "idempotent": rank(rank(x)) == rank(x) :
stopifnot(rank(r1) == r1, rank(r2) == r2)
## ranks without averaging
rank(x2, ties.method= "first") # first occurrence wins
rank(x2, ties.method= "last") # last occurrence wins
rank(x2, ties.method= "random") # ties broken at random
rank(x2, ties.method= "random") # and again
## keep ties ties, no average
(rma <- rank(x2, ties.method= "max")) # as used classically
(rmi <- rank(x2, ties.method= "min")) # as in Sports
stopifnot(rma + rmi == round(r2 + r2))
## Comparing all tie.methods:
tMeth <- eval(formals(rank)$ties.method)
rx2 <- sapply(tMeth, function(M) rank(x2, ties.method=M))
cbind(x2, rx2)
## ties.method's does not matter w/o ties:
x <- sample(47)
rx <- sapply(tMeth, function(MM) rank(x, ties.method=MM))
stopifnot(all(rx[,1] == rx))
```

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