base (version 3.6.2)

diff: Lagged Differences

Description

Returns suitably lagged and iterated differences.

Usage

diff(x, …)

# S3 method for default diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, …)

# S3 method for POSIXt diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, …)

# S3 method for Date diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, …)

Arguments

x

a numeric vector or matrix containing the values to be differenced.

lag

an integer indicating which lag to use.

differences

an integer indicating the order of the difference.

further arguments to be passed to or from methods.

Value

If x is a vector of length n and differences = 1, then the computed result is equal to the successive differences x[(1+lag):n] - x[1:(n-lag)].

If difference is larger than one this algorithm is applied recursively to x. Note that the returned value is a vector which is shorter than x.

If x is a matrix then the difference operations are carried out on each column separately.

Details

diff is a generic function with a default method and ones for classes "ts", "POSIXt" and "Date".

NA's propagate.

References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

diff.ts, diffinv.

Examples

# NOT RUN {
diff(1:10, 2)
diff(1:10, 2, 2)
x <- cumsum(cumsum(1:10))
diff(x, lag = 2)
diff(x, differences = 2)

diff(.leap.seconds)
# }