base v3.6.2

The R Base Package

Base R functions.

Functions in base

Name Description
Bessel Bessel Functions
Constants Built-in Constants
Colon Colon Operator
Comparison Relational Operators
AsIs Inhibit Interpretation/Conversion of Objects
Cstack_info Report Information on C Stack Size and Usage
CallExternal Modern Interfaces to C/C++ code
Arithmetic Arithmetic Operators
Control Control Flow
DateTimeClasses Date-Time Classes
EnvVar Environment Variables
Deprecated Marking Objects as Deprecated
Extract.data.frame Extract or Replace Parts of a Data Frame
Extremes Maxima and Minima
Foreign Foreign Function Interface
Hyperbolic Hyperbolic Functions
Foreign-internal Internal Versions of the Foreign Function Interface
Dates Date Class
Encoding Read or Set the Declared Encodings for a Character Vector
Defunct Marking Objects as Defunct
Extract Extract or Replace Parts of an Object
Extract.factor Extract or Replace Parts of a Factor
Internal Call an Internal Function
NumericConstants Numeric Constants
Ops.Date Operators on the Date Class
ISOdatetime Date-time Conversion Functions from Numeric Representations
Memory-limits Memory Limits in R
La_version LAPACK Version
Memory Memory Available for Data Storage
Last.value Value of Last Evaluated Expression
NULL The Null Object
NA ‘Not Available’ / Missing Values
Random.user User-supplied Random Number Generation
Startup Initialization at Start of an R Session
Syntax Operator Syntax and Precedence
agrep Approximate String Matching (Fuzzy Matching)
Random Random Number Generation
Rhome Return the R Home Directory
Reserved Reserved Words in R
log Logarithms and Exponentials
Logic Logical Operators
RdUtils Utilities for Processing Rd Files
LongVectors Long Vectors
MathFun Miscellaneous Mathematical Functions
Recall Recursive Calling
Sys.getenv Get Environment Variables
any Are Some Values True?
Sys.getpid Get the Process ID of the R Session
Sys.time Get Current Date and Time
Sys.sleep Suspend Execution for a Time Interval
InternalMethods Internal Generic Functions
all Are All Values True?
append Vector Merging
La_library LAPACK Library
Primitive Look Up a Primitive Function
as.function Convert Object to Function
call Function Calls
asplit Split Array/Matrix By Its Margins
basename Manipulate File Paths
base-package The R Base Package
apply Apply Functions Over Array Margins
Paren Parentheses and Braces
.Platform Platform Specific Variables
Quotes Quotes
Round Rounding of Numbers
Special Special Functions of Mathematics
class Object Classes
cut Convert Numeric to Factor
colSums Form Row and Column Sums and Means
callCC Call With Current Continuation
data.class Object Classes
col Column Indexes
aperm Array Transposition
row+colnames Row and Column Names
delayedAssign Delay Evaluation
attach Attach Set of R Objects to Search Path
dimnames Dimnames of an Object
exists Is an Object Defined?
expression Unevaluated Expressions
expand.grid Create a Data Frame from All Combinations of Factor Variables
do.call Execute a Function Call
Sys.localeconv Find Details of the Numerical and Monetary Representations in the Current Locale
deparse Expression Deparsing
attr Object Attributes
backsolve Solve an Upper or Lower Triangular System
Sys.glob Wildcard Expansion on File Paths
R.Version Version Information
Sys.info Extract System and User Information
Sys.setFileTime Set File Time
browserText Functions to Retrieve Values Supplied by Calls to the Browser
chartr Character Translation and Casefolding
base-defunct Defunct Functions in Package base
builtins Returns the Names of All Built-in Objects
chkDots Warn About Extraneous Arguments in the "..." of Its Caller
abbreviate Abbreviate Strings
all.equal Test if Two Objects are (Nearly) Equal
all.names Find All Names in an Expression
Sys.readlink Read File Symbolic Links
Sys.setenv Set or Unset Environment Variables
UseMethod Class Methods
Trig Trigonometric Functions
Sys.which Find Full Paths to Executables
as.Date Date Conversion Functions to and from Character
extSoftVersion Report Versions of Third-Party Software
conflicts Search for Masked Objects on the Search Path
force Force Evaluation of an Argument
assign Assign a Value to a Name
as.data.frame Coerce to a Data Frame
forceAndCall Call a function with Some Arguments Forced
as.POSIX* Date-time Conversion Functions
dataframeHelpers Data Frame Auxiliary Functions
connections Functions to Manipulate Connections (Files, URLs, ...)
assignOps Assignment Operators
dcf Read and Write Data in DCF Format
date System Date and Time
debug Debug a Function
difftime Time Intervals / Differences
args Argument List of a Function
attributes Object Attribute Lists
Vectorize Vectorize a Scalar Function
array Multi-way Arrays
autoload On-demand Loading of Packages
.bincode Bin a Numeric Vector
bindenv Binding and Environment Locking, Active Bindings
as.environment Coerce to an Environment Object
bquote Partial substitution in expressions
bitwise Bitwise Logical Operations
base-internal Internal Objects in Package base
base-deprecated Deprecated Functions in Package base
cat Concatenate and Print
cbind Combine R Objects by Rows or Columns
capabilities Report Capabilities of this Build of R
by Apply a Function to a Data Frame Split by Factors
c Combine Values into a Vector or List
body Access to and Manipulation of the Body of a Function
char.expand Expand a String with Respect to a Target Table
contributors R Project Contributors
function Function Definition
character Character Vectors
charmatch Partial String Matching
complex Complex Numbers and Basic Functionality
data.frame Data Frames
chol The Choleski Decomposition
chol2inv Inverse from Choleski (or QR) Decomposition
data.matrix Convert a Data Frame to a Numeric Matrix
browser Environment Browser
conditions Condition Handling and Recovery
funprog Common Higher-Order Functions in Functional Programming Languages
commandArgs Extract Command Line Arguments
curlGetHeaders Retrieve Headers from URLs
comment Query or Set a "comment" Attribute
cut.POSIXt Convert a Date or Date-Time Object to a Factor
diff Lagged Differences
deparseOpts Options for Expression Deparsing
dontCheck Identity Function to Suppress Checking
diag Matrix Diagonals
dots …, ..1, etc used in Functions
eigen Spectral Decomposition of a Matrix
encodeString Encode Character Vector as for Printing
files File Manipulation
det Calculate the Determinant of a Matrix
find.package Find Packages
gettext Translate Text Messages
gctorture Torture Garbage Collector
files2 Manipulation of Directories and File Permissions
get Return the Value of a Named Object
findInterval Find Interval Numbers or Indices
dim Dimensions of an Object
getwd Get or Set Working Directory
is.finite Finite, Infinite and NaN Numbers
eval Evaluate an (Unevaluated) Expression
file.access Ascertain File Accessibility
environment Environment Access
factor Factors
gzcon (De)compress I/O Through Connections
identity Identity Function
grouping Grouping Permutation
double Double-Precision Vectors
dput Write an Object to a File or Recreate it
crossprod Matrix Crossproduct
copyright Copyrights of Files Used to Build R
cumsum Cumulative Sums, Products, and Extremes
formals Access to and Manipulation of the Formal Arguments
ifelse Conditional Element Selection
drop Drop Redundant Extent Information
detach Detach Objects from the Search Path
dump Text Representations of R Objects
.Device Lists of Open/Active Graphics Devices
droplevels Drop Unused Levels from Factors
is.function Is an Object of Type (Primitive) Function?
dyn.load Foreign Function Interface
format Encode in a Common Format
getDLLRegisteredRoutines Reflectance Information for C/Fortran routines in a DLL
getCallingDLL Compute DLL for Native Interface Call
jitter ‘Jitter’ (Add Noise) to Numbers
eapply Apply a Function Over Values in an Environment
kappa Compute or Estimate the Condition Number of a Matrix
file.info Extract File Information
file.choose Choose a File Interactively
is.recursive Is an Object Atomic or Recursive?
lazyLoad Lazy Load a Database of R Objects
duplicated Determine Duplicate Elements
is.single Is an Object of Single Precision Type?
gl Generate Factor Levels
grep Pattern Matching and Replacement
labels Find Labels from Object
lapply Apply a Function over a List or Vector
file.path Construct Path to File
length Length of an Object
interactive Is R Running Interactively?
list.files List the Files in a Directory/Folder
list2env From A List, Build or Add To an Environment
file.show Display One or More Text Files
match.arg Argument Verification Using Partial Matching
match Value Matching
format.info format(.) Information
format.pval Format P Values
license The R License Terms
invisible Change the Print Mode to Invisible
formatDL Format Description Lists
gc Garbage Collection
formatC Formatting Using C-style Formats
gc.time Report Time Spent in Garbage Collection
list Lists -- Generic and Dotted Pairs
memCompress In-memory Compression and Decompression
getLoadedDLLs Get DLLs Loaded in Current Session
is.unsorted Test if an Object is Not Sorted
libPaths Search Paths for Packages
is.R Are we using R, rather than S?
libcurlVersion Report Version of libcurl
getNativeSymbolInfo Obtain a Description of one or more Native (C/Fortran) Symbols
iconv Convert Character Vector between Encodings
hexmode Display Numbers in Hexadecimal
memlimits Query and Set Heap Size Limits
ls List Objects
make.names Make Syntactically Valid Names
missing Does a Formal Argument have a Value?
message Diagnostic Messages
noquote Class for ‘no quote’ Printing of Character Strings
grepRaw Pattern Matching for Raw Vectors
norm Compute the Norm of a Matrix
nchar Count the Number of Characters (or Bytes or Width)
identical Test Objects for Exact Equality
icuSetCollate Setup Collation by ICU
isS4 Test for an S4 object
levels Levels Attributes
lengths Lengths of List or Vector Elements
logical Logical Vectors
lower.tri Lower and Upper Triangular Part of a Matrix
isSymmetric Test if a Matrix or other Object is Symmetric (Hermitian)
nlevels The Number of Levels of a Factor
groupGeneric S3 Group Generic Functions
integer Integer Vectors
library Loading/Attaching and Listing of Packages
margin.table Compute table margin
maxCol Find Maximum Position in Matrix
mat.or.vec Create a Matrix or a Vector
library.dynam Loading DLLs from Packages
match.call Argument Matching
match.fun Extract a Function Specified by Name
mean Arithmetic Mean
names The Names of an Object
interaction Compute Factor Interactions
ns-dblcolon Double Colon and Triple Colon Operators
nrow The Number of Rows/Columns of an Array
nargs The Number of Arguments to a Function
is.language Is an Object a Language Object?
ns-load Loading and Unloading Name Spaces
is.object Is an Object ‘internally classed’?
memory.profile Profile the Usage of Cons Cells
merge Merge Two Data Frames
l10n_info Localization Information
load Reload Saved Datasets
kronecker Kronecker Products on Arrays
mode The (Storage) Mode of an Object
locales Query or Set Aspects of the Locale
name Names and Symbols
make.unique Make Character Strings Unique
ns-reflect.Rd Namespace Reflection Support
mapply Apply a Function to Multiple List or Vector Arguments
ns-hooks Hooks for Namespace Events
ns-internals Namespace Internals
matmult Matrix Multiplication
matrix Matrices
NotYet Not Yet Implemented Functions and Unused Arguments
normalizePath Express File Paths in Canonical Form
numeric Numeric Vectors
ns-topenv Top Level Environment
order Ordering Permutation
outer Outer Product of Arrays
numeric_version Numeric Versions
parse Parse R Expressions
paste Concatenate Strings
print Print Values
octmode Display Numbers in Octal
print.data.frame Printing Data Frames
prod Product of Vector Elements
proc.time Running Time of R
pmatch Partial String Matching
polyroot Find Zeros of a Real or Complex Polynomial
on.exit Function Exit Code
options Options Settings
qr The QR Decomposition of a Matrix
pos.to.env Convert Positions in the Search Path to Environments
raw Raw Vectors
pretty Pretty Breakpoints
rawConnection Raw Connections
readline Read a Line from the Terminal
QR.Auxiliaries Reconstruct the Q, R, or X Matrices from a QR Object
prop.table Express Table Entries as Fraction of Marginal Table
pcre_config Report Configuration Options for PCRE
path.expand Expand File Paths
quit Terminate an R Session
range Range of Values
readRDS Serialization Interface for Single Objects
readRenviron Set Environment Variables from a File
rle Run Length Encoding
rev Reverse Elements
print.default Default Printing
prmatrix Print Matrices, Old-style
pushBack Push Text Back on to a Connection
showConnections Display Connections
sign Sign Function
seek Functions to Reposition Connections
search Give Search Path for R Objects
reg.finalizer Finalization of Objects
rank Sample Ranks
readChar Transfer Character Strings To and From Connections
readLines Read Text Lines from a Connection
rapply Recursively Apply a Function to a List
rep Replicate Elements of Vectors and Lists
replace Replace Values in a Vector
row Row Indexes
remove Remove Objects from a Specified Environment
row.names Get and Set Row Names for Data Frames
svd Singular Value Decomposition of a Matrix
round.POSIXt Round / Truncate Data-Time Objects
rawConversion Convert to or from Raw Vectors
readBin Transfer Binary Data To and From Connections
seq.Date Generate Regular Sequences of Dates
seq.POSIXt Generate Regular Sequences of Times
sprintf Use C-style String Formatting Commands
sink Send R Output to a File
sample Random Samples and Permutations
solve Solve a System of Equations
scan Read Data Values
sort Sorting or Ordering Vectors
strrep Repeat the Elements of a Character Vector
scale Scaling and Centering of Matrix-like Objects
strptime Date-time Conversion Functions to and from Character
regex Regular Expressions as used in R
strwrap Wrap Character Strings to Format Paragraphs
sweep Sweep out Array Summaries
slice.index Slice Indexes in an Array
regmatches Extract or Replace Matched Substrings
serialize Simple Serialization Interface
sets Set Operations
save Save R Objects
setTimeLimit Set CPU and/or Elapsed Time Limits
rowsum Give Column Sums of a Matrix or Data Frame, Based on a Grouping Variable
sQuote Quote Text
tempfile Create Names for Temporary Files
subset Subsetting Vectors, Matrices and Data Frames
shQuote Quote Strings for Use in OS Shells
sys.source Parse and Evaluate Expressions from a File
startsWith Does String Start or End With Another String?
standardGeneric Formal Method System -- Dispatching S4 Methods
sum Sum of Vector Elements
source Read R Code from a File, a Connection or Expressions
transform Transform an Object, for Example a Data Frame
split Divide into Groups and Reassemble
utf8Conversion Convert Integer Vectors to or from UTF-8-encoded Character Vectors
textConnection Text Connections
seq Sequence Generation
slotOp Extract or Replace A Slot
socketSelect Wait on Socket Connections
sequence Create A Vector of Sequences
stop Stop Function Execution
substitute Substituting and Quoting Expressions
srcfile References to Source Files and Code
strsplit Split the Elements of a Character Vector
.Machine Numerical Characteristics of the Machine
summary Object Summaries
substr Substrings of a Character Vector
trimws Remove Leading/Trailing Whitespace
sys.parent Functions to Access the Function Call Stack
strtoi Convert Strings to Integers
taskCallback Add or Remove a Top-Level Task Callback
tapply Apply a Function Over a Ragged Array
switch Select One of a List of Alternatives
taskCallbackNames Query the Names of the Current Internal Top-Level Task Callbacks
strtrim Trim Character Strings to Specified Display Widths
system Invoke a System Command
stopifnot Ensure the Truth of R Expressions
userhooks Functions to Get and Set Hooks for Load, Attach, Detach and Unload
t Matrix Transpose
structure Attribute Specification
timezones Time Zones
system2 Invoke a System Command
try Try an Expression Allowing Error Recovery
write Write Data to a File
withVisible Return both a Value and its Visibility
taskCallbackManager Create an R-level Task Callback Manager
.Script Scripting Language Interface
system.file Find Names of R System Files
system.time CPU Time Used
unlist Flatten Lists
trace Interactive Tracing and Debugging of Calls to a Function or Method
toString Convert an R Object to a Character String
tilde Tilde Operator
weekdays Extract Parts of a POSIXt or Date Object
unlink Delete Files and Directories
unique Extract Unique Elements
zapsmall Rounding of Numbers: Zapping Small Ones to Zero
which Which indices are TRUE?
zpackages Listing of Packages
typeof The Type of an Object
zutils Miscellaneous Internal/Programming Utilities
tabulate Tabulation for Vectors
validUTF8 Check if a Character Vector is Validly Encoded
vector Vectors
table Cross Tabulation and Table Creation
which.min Where is the Min() or Max() or first TRUE or FALSE ?
with Evaluate an Expression in a Data Environment
tracemem Trace Copying of Objects
traceback Get and Print Call Stacks
unname Remove names or dimnames
writeLines Write Lines to a Connection
warning Warning Messages
warnings Print Warning Messages
xtfrm Auxiliary Function for Sorting and Ranking
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Priority base
License Part of R 3.6.2
suggests methods
Contributors contributors worldwide, R team

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