# base v3.6.2

## The R Base Package

Base R functions.

## Functions in base

Name | Description | |

Bessel | Bessel Functions | |

Constants | Built-in Constants | |

Colon | Colon Operator | |

Comparison | Relational Operators | |

AsIs | Inhibit Interpretation/Conversion of Objects | |

Cstack_info | Report Information on C Stack Size and Usage | |

CallExternal | Modern Interfaces to C/C++ code | |

Arithmetic | Arithmetic Operators | |

Control | Control Flow | |

DateTimeClasses | Date-Time Classes | |

EnvVar | Environment Variables | |

Deprecated | Marking Objects as Deprecated | |

Extract.data.frame | Extract or Replace Parts of a Data Frame | |

Extremes | Maxima and Minima | |

Foreign | Foreign Function Interface | |

Hyperbolic | Hyperbolic Functions | |

Foreign-internal | Internal Versions of the Foreign Function Interface | |

Dates | Date Class | |

Encoding | Read or Set the Declared Encodings for a Character Vector | |

Defunct | Marking Objects as Defunct | |

Extract | Extract or Replace Parts of an Object | |

Extract.factor | Extract or Replace Parts of a Factor | |

Internal | Call an Internal Function | |

NumericConstants | Numeric Constants | |

Ops.Date | Operators on the Date Class | |

ISOdatetime | Date-time Conversion Functions from Numeric Representations | |

Memory-limits | Memory Limits in R | |

La_version | LAPACK Version | |

Memory | Memory Available for Data Storage | |

Last.value | Value of Last Evaluated Expression | |

NULL | The Null Object | |

NA | ‘Not Available’ / Missing Values | |

Random.user | User-supplied Random Number Generation | |

Startup | Initialization at Start of an R Session | |

Syntax | Operator Syntax and Precedence | |

agrep | Approximate String Matching (Fuzzy Matching) | |

Random | Random Number Generation | |

Rhome | Return the R Home Directory | |

Reserved | Reserved Words in R | |

log | Logarithms and Exponentials | |

Logic | Logical Operators | |

RdUtils | Utilities for Processing Rd Files | |

LongVectors | Long Vectors | |

MathFun | Miscellaneous Mathematical Functions | |

Recall | Recursive Calling | |

Sys.getenv | Get Environment Variables | |

any | Are Some Values True? | |

Sys.getpid | Get the Process ID of the R Session | |

Sys.time | Get Current Date and Time | |

Sys.sleep | Suspend Execution for a Time Interval | |

InternalMethods | Internal Generic Functions | |

all | Are All Values True? | |

append | Vector Merging | |

La_library | LAPACK Library | |

Primitive | Look Up a Primitive Function | |

as.function | Convert Object to Function | |

call | Function Calls | |

asplit | Split Array/Matrix By Its Margins | |

basename | Manipulate File Paths | |

base-package | The R Base Package | |

apply | Apply Functions Over Array Margins | |

Paren | Parentheses and Braces | |

.Platform | Platform Specific Variables | |

Quotes | Quotes | |

Round | Rounding of Numbers | |

Special | Special Functions of Mathematics | |

class | Object Classes | |

cut | Convert Numeric to Factor | |

colSums | Form Row and Column Sums and Means | |

callCC | Call With Current Continuation | |

data.class | Object Classes | |

col | Column Indexes | |

aperm | Array Transposition | |

row+colnames | Row and Column Names | |

delayedAssign | Delay Evaluation | |

attach | Attach Set of R Objects to Search Path | |

dimnames | Dimnames of an Object | |

exists | Is an Object Defined? | |

expression | Unevaluated Expressions | |

expand.grid | Create a Data Frame from All Combinations of Factor Variables | |

do.call | Execute a Function Call | |

Sys.localeconv | Find Details of the Numerical and Monetary Representations in the Current Locale | |

deparse | Expression Deparsing | |

attr | Object Attributes | |

backsolve | Solve an Upper or Lower Triangular System | |

Sys.glob | Wildcard Expansion on File Paths | |

R.Version | Version Information | |

Sys.info | Extract System and User Information | |

Sys.setFileTime | Set File Time | |

browserText | Functions to Retrieve Values Supplied by Calls to the Browser | |

chartr | Character Translation and Casefolding | |

base-defunct | Defunct Functions in Package base | |

builtins | Returns the Names of All Built-in Objects | |

chkDots | Warn About Extraneous Arguments in the "..." of Its Caller | |

abbreviate | Abbreviate Strings | |

all.equal | Test if Two Objects are (Nearly) Equal | |

all.names | Find All Names in an Expression | |

Sys.readlink | Read File Symbolic Links | |

Sys.setenv | Set or Unset Environment Variables | |

UseMethod | Class Methods | |

Trig | Trigonometric Functions | |

Sys.which | Find Full Paths to Executables | |

as.Date | Date Conversion Functions to and from Character | |

extSoftVersion | Report Versions of Third-Party Software | |

conflicts | Search for Masked Objects on the Search Path | |

force | Force Evaluation of an Argument | |

assign | Assign a Value to a Name | |

as.data.frame | Coerce to a Data Frame | |

forceAndCall | Call a function with Some Arguments Forced | |

as.POSIX* | Date-time Conversion Functions | |

dataframeHelpers | Data Frame Auxiliary Functions | |

connections | Functions to Manipulate Connections (Files, URLs, ...) | |

assignOps | Assignment Operators | |

dcf | Read and Write Data in DCF Format | |

date | System Date and Time | |

debug | Debug a Function | |

difftime | Time Intervals / Differences | |

args | Argument List of a Function | |

attributes | Object Attribute Lists | |

Vectorize | Vectorize a Scalar Function | |

array | Multi-way Arrays | |

autoload | On-demand Loading of Packages | |

.bincode | Bin a Numeric Vector | |

bindenv | Binding and Environment Locking, Active Bindings | |

as.environment | Coerce to an Environment Object | |

bquote | Partial substitution in expressions | |

bitwise | Bitwise Logical Operations | |

base-internal | Internal Objects in Package base | |

base-deprecated | Deprecated Functions in Package base | |

cat | Concatenate and Print | |

cbind | Combine R Objects by Rows or Columns | |

capabilities | Report Capabilities of this Build of R | |

by | Apply a Function to a Data Frame Split by Factors | |

c | Combine Values into a Vector or List | |

body | Access to and Manipulation of the Body of a Function | |

char.expand | Expand a String with Respect to a Target Table | |

contributors | R Project Contributors | |

function | Function Definition | |

character | Character Vectors | |

charmatch | Partial String Matching | |

complex | Complex Numbers and Basic Functionality | |

data.frame | Data Frames | |

chol | The Choleski Decomposition | |

chol2inv | Inverse from Choleski (or QR) Decomposition | |

data.matrix | Convert a Data Frame to a Numeric Matrix | |

browser | Environment Browser | |

conditions | Condition Handling and Recovery | |

funprog | Common Higher-Order Functions in Functional Programming Languages | |

commandArgs | Extract Command Line Arguments | |

curlGetHeaders | Retrieve Headers from URLs | |

comment | Query or Set a "comment" Attribute | |

cut.POSIXt | Convert a Date or Date-Time Object to a Factor | |

diff | Lagged Differences | |

deparseOpts | Options for Expression Deparsing | |

dontCheck | Identity Function to Suppress Checking | |

diag | Matrix Diagonals | |

dots | …, ..1, etc used in Functions | |

eigen | Spectral Decomposition of a Matrix | |

encodeString | Encode Character Vector as for Printing | |

files | File Manipulation | |

det | Calculate the Determinant of a Matrix | |

find.package | Find Packages | |

gettext | Translate Text Messages | |

gctorture | Torture Garbage Collector | |

files2 | Manipulation of Directories and File Permissions | |

get | Return the Value of a Named Object | |

findInterval | Find Interval Numbers or Indices | |

dim | Dimensions of an Object | |

getwd | Get or Set Working Directory | |

is.finite | Finite, Infinite and NaN Numbers | |

eval | Evaluate an (Unevaluated) Expression | |

file.access | Ascertain File Accessibility | |

environment | Environment Access | |

factor | Factors | |

gzcon | (De)compress I/O Through Connections | |

identity | Identity Function | |

grouping | Grouping Permutation | |

double | Double-Precision Vectors | |

dput | Write an Object to a File or Recreate it | |

crossprod | Matrix Crossproduct | |

copyright | Copyrights of Files Used to Build R | |

cumsum | Cumulative Sums, Products, and Extremes | |

formals | Access to and Manipulation of the Formal Arguments | |

ifelse | Conditional Element Selection | |

drop | Drop Redundant Extent Information | |

detach | Detach Objects from the Search Path | |

dump | Text Representations of R Objects | |

.Device | Lists of Open/Active Graphics Devices | |

droplevels | Drop Unused Levels from Factors | |

is.function | Is an Object of Type (Primitive) Function? | |

dyn.load | Foreign Function Interface | |

format | Encode in a Common Format | |

getDLLRegisteredRoutines | Reflectance Information for C/Fortran routines in a DLL | |

getCallingDLL | Compute DLL for Native Interface Call | |

jitter | ‘Jitter’ (Add Noise) to Numbers | |

eapply | Apply a Function Over Values in an Environment | |

kappa | Compute or Estimate the Condition Number of a Matrix | |

file.info | Extract File Information | |

file.choose | Choose a File Interactively | |

is.recursive | Is an Object Atomic or Recursive? | |

lazyLoad | Lazy Load a Database of R Objects | |

duplicated | Determine Duplicate Elements | |

is.single | Is an Object of Single Precision Type? | |

gl | Generate Factor Levels | |

grep | Pattern Matching and Replacement | |

labels | Find Labels from Object | |

lapply | Apply a Function over a List or Vector | |

file.path | Construct Path to File | |

length | Length of an Object | |

interactive | Is R Running Interactively? | |

list.files | List the Files in a Directory/Folder | |

list2env | From A List, Build or Add To an Environment | |

file.show | Display One or More Text Files | |

match.arg | Argument Verification Using Partial Matching | |

match | Value Matching | |

format.info | format(.) Information | |

format.pval | Format P Values | |

license | The R License Terms | |

invisible | Change the Print Mode to Invisible | |

formatDL | Format Description Lists | |

gc | Garbage Collection | |

formatC | Formatting Using C-style Formats | |

gc.time | Report Time Spent in Garbage Collection | |

list | Lists -- Generic and Dotted Pairs | |

memCompress | In-memory Compression and Decompression | |

getLoadedDLLs | Get DLLs Loaded in Current Session | |

is.unsorted | Test if an Object is Not Sorted | |

libPaths | Search Paths for Packages | |

is.R | Are we using R, rather than S? | |

libcurlVersion | Report Version of libcurl | |

getNativeSymbolInfo | Obtain a Description of one or more Native (C/Fortran) Symbols | |

iconv | Convert Character Vector between Encodings | |

hexmode | Display Numbers in Hexadecimal | |

memlimits | Query and Set Heap Size Limits | |

ls | List Objects | |

make.names | Make Syntactically Valid Names | |

missing | Does a Formal Argument have a Value? | |

message | Diagnostic Messages | |

noquote | Class for ‘no quote’ Printing of Character Strings | |

grepRaw | Pattern Matching for Raw Vectors | |

norm | Compute the Norm of a Matrix | |

nchar | Count the Number of Characters (or Bytes or Width) | |

identical | Test Objects for Exact Equality | |

icuSetCollate | Setup Collation by ICU | |

isS4 | Test for an S4 object | |

levels | Levels Attributes | |

lengths | Lengths of List or Vector Elements | |

logical | Logical Vectors | |

lower.tri | Lower and Upper Triangular Part of a Matrix | |

isSymmetric | Test if a Matrix or other Object is Symmetric (Hermitian) | |

nlevels | The Number of Levels of a Factor | |

groupGeneric | S3 Group Generic Functions | |

integer | Integer Vectors | |

library | Loading/Attaching and Listing of Packages | |

margin.table | Compute table margin | |

maxCol | Find Maximum Position in Matrix | |

mat.or.vec | Create a Matrix or a Vector | |

library.dynam | Loading DLLs from Packages | |

match.call | Argument Matching | |

match.fun | Extract a Function Specified by Name | |

mean | Arithmetic Mean | |

names | The Names of an Object | |

interaction | Compute Factor Interactions | |

ns-dblcolon | Double Colon and Triple Colon Operators | |

nrow | The Number of Rows/Columns of an Array | |

nargs | The Number of Arguments to a Function | |

is.language | Is an Object a Language Object? | |

ns-load | Loading and Unloading Name Spaces | |

is.object | Is an Object ‘internally classed’? | |

memory.profile | Profile the Usage of Cons Cells | |

merge | Merge Two Data Frames | |

l10n_info | Localization Information | |

load | Reload Saved Datasets | |

kronecker | Kronecker Products on Arrays | |

mode | The (Storage) Mode of an Object | |

locales | Query or Set Aspects of the Locale | |

name | Names and Symbols | |

make.unique | Make Character Strings Unique | |

ns-reflect.Rd | Namespace Reflection Support | |

mapply | Apply a Function to Multiple List or Vector Arguments | |

ns-hooks | Hooks for Namespace Events | |

ns-internals | Namespace Internals | |

matmult | Matrix Multiplication | |

matrix | Matrices | |

NotYet | Not Yet Implemented Functions and Unused Arguments | |

normalizePath | Express File Paths in Canonical Form | |

numeric | Numeric Vectors | |

ns-topenv | Top Level Environment | |

order | Ordering Permutation | |

outer | Outer Product of Arrays | |

numeric_version | Numeric Versions | |

parse | Parse R Expressions | |

paste | Concatenate Strings | |

Print Values | ||

octmode | Display Numbers in Octal | |

print.data.frame | Printing Data Frames | |

prod | Product of Vector Elements | |

proc.time | Running Time of R | |

pmatch | Partial String Matching | |

polyroot | Find Zeros of a Real or Complex Polynomial | |

on.exit | Function Exit Code | |

options | Options Settings | |

qr | The QR Decomposition of a Matrix | |

pos.to.env | Convert Positions in the Search Path to Environments | |

raw | Raw Vectors | |

pretty | Pretty Breakpoints | |

rawConnection | Raw Connections | |

readline | Read a Line from the Terminal | |

QR.Auxiliaries | Reconstruct the Q, R, or X Matrices from a QR Object | |

prop.table | Express Table Entries as Fraction of Marginal Table | |

pcre_config | Report Configuration Options for PCRE | |

path.expand | Expand File Paths | |

quit | Terminate an R Session | |

range | Range of Values | |

readRDS | Serialization Interface for Single Objects | |

readRenviron | Set Environment Variables from a File | |

rle | Run Length Encoding | |

rev | Reverse Elements | |

print.default | Default Printing | |

prmatrix | Print Matrices, Old-style | |

pushBack | Push Text Back on to a Connection | |

showConnections | Display Connections | |

sign | Sign Function | |

seek | Functions to Reposition Connections | |

search | Give Search Path for R Objects | |

reg.finalizer | Finalization of Objects | |

rank | Sample Ranks | |

readChar | Transfer Character Strings To and From Connections | |

readLines | Read Text Lines from a Connection | |

rapply | Recursively Apply a Function to a List | |

rep | Replicate Elements of Vectors and Lists | |

replace | Replace Values in a Vector | |

row | Row Indexes | |

remove | Remove Objects from a Specified Environment | |

row.names | Get and Set Row Names for Data Frames | |

svd | Singular Value Decomposition of a Matrix | |

round.POSIXt | Round / Truncate Data-Time Objects | |

rawConversion | Convert to or from Raw Vectors | |

readBin | Transfer Binary Data To and From Connections | |

seq.Date | Generate Regular Sequences of Dates | |

seq.POSIXt | Generate Regular Sequences of Times | |

sprintf | Use C-style String Formatting Commands | |

sink | Send R Output to a File | |

sample | Random Samples and Permutations | |

solve | Solve a System of Equations | |

scan | Read Data Values | |

sort | Sorting or Ordering Vectors | |

strrep | Repeat the Elements of a Character Vector | |

scale | Scaling and Centering of Matrix-like Objects | |

strptime | Date-time Conversion Functions to and from Character | |

regex | Regular Expressions as used in R | |

strwrap | Wrap Character Strings to Format Paragraphs | |

sweep | Sweep out Array Summaries | |

slice.index | Slice Indexes in an Array | |

regmatches | Extract or Replace Matched Substrings | |

serialize | Simple Serialization Interface | |

sets | Set Operations | |

save | Save R Objects | |

setTimeLimit | Set CPU and/or Elapsed Time Limits | |

rowsum | Give Column Sums of a Matrix or Data Frame, Based on a Grouping Variable | |

sQuote | Quote Text | |

tempfile | Create Names for Temporary Files | |

subset | Subsetting Vectors, Matrices and Data Frames | |

shQuote | Quote Strings for Use in OS Shells | |

sys.source | Parse and Evaluate Expressions from a File | |

startsWith | Does String Start or End With Another String? | |

standardGeneric | Formal Method System -- Dispatching S4 Methods | |

sum | Sum of Vector Elements | |

source | Read R Code from a File, a Connection or Expressions | |

transform | Transform an Object, for Example a Data Frame | |

split | Divide into Groups and Reassemble | |

utf8Conversion | Convert Integer Vectors to or from UTF-8-encoded Character Vectors | |

textConnection | Text Connections | |

seq | Sequence Generation | |

slotOp | Extract or Replace A Slot | |

socketSelect | Wait on Socket Connections | |

sequence | Create A Vector of Sequences | |

stop | Stop Function Execution | |

substitute | Substituting and Quoting Expressions | |

srcfile | References to Source Files and Code | |

strsplit | Split the Elements of a Character Vector | |

.Machine | Numerical Characteristics of the Machine | |

summary | Object Summaries | |

substr | Substrings of a Character Vector | |

trimws | Remove Leading/Trailing Whitespace | |

sys.parent | Functions to Access the Function Call Stack | |

strtoi | Convert Strings to Integers | |

taskCallback | Add or Remove a Top-Level Task Callback | |

tapply | Apply a Function Over a Ragged Array | |

switch | Select One of a List of Alternatives | |

taskCallbackNames | Query the Names of the Current Internal Top-Level Task Callbacks | |

strtrim | Trim Character Strings to Specified Display Widths | |

system | Invoke a System Command | |

stopifnot | Ensure the Truth of R Expressions | |

userhooks | Functions to Get and Set Hooks for Load, Attach, Detach and Unload | |

t | Matrix Transpose | |

structure | Attribute Specification | |

timezones | Time Zones | |

system2 | Invoke a System Command | |

try | Try an Expression Allowing Error Recovery | |

write | Write Data to a File | |

withVisible | Return both a Value and its Visibility | |

taskCallbackManager | Create an R-level Task Callback Manager | |

.Script | Scripting Language Interface | |

system.file | Find Names of R System Files | |

system.time | CPU Time Used | |

unlist | Flatten Lists | |

trace | Interactive Tracing and Debugging of Calls to a Function or Method | |

toString | Convert an R Object to a Character String | |

tilde | Tilde Operator | |

weekdays | Extract Parts of a POSIXt or Date Object | |

unlink | Delete Files and Directories | |

unique | Extract Unique Elements | |

zapsmall | Rounding of Numbers: Zapping Small Ones to Zero | |

which | Which indices are TRUE? | |

zpackages | Listing of Packages | |

typeof | The Type of an Object | |

zutils | Miscellaneous Internal/Programming Utilities | |

tabulate | Tabulation for Vectors | |

validUTF8 | Check if a Character Vector is Validly Encoded | |

vector | Vectors | |

table | Cross Tabulation and Table Creation | |

which.min | Where is the Min() or Max() or first TRUE or FALSE ? | |

with | Evaluate an Expression in a Data Environment | |

tracemem | Trace Copying of Objects | |

traceback | Get and Print Call Stacks | |

unname | Remove names or dimnames | |

writeLines | Write Lines to a Connection | |

warning | Warning Messages | |

warnings | Print Warning Messages | |

xtfrm | Auxiliary Function for Sorting and Ranking | |

No Results! |

## Details

Priority | base |

License | Part of R 3.6.2 |

suggests | methods |

Contributors | contributors worldwide, R team |

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