`sum`

returns the sum of all the values
present in its arguments.

`sum(…, na.rm = FALSE)`

…

numeric or complex or logical vectors.

na.rm

logical. Should missing values (including `NaN`

) be
removed?

The sum. If all of the `…`

arguments are of type
integer or logical, then the sum is `integer`

when
possible and is `double`

otherwise. Integer overflow should no
longer happen since R version 3.5.0.
For other argument types it is a length-one numeric
(`double`

) or complex vector.

**NB:** the sum of an empty set is zero, by definition.

This is a generic function: methods can be defined for it
directly or via the `Summary`

group generic.
For this to work properly, the arguments `…`

should be
unnamed, and dispatch is on the first argument.

If `na.rm`

is `FALSE`

an `NA`

or `NaN`

value in
any of the arguments will cause a value of `NA`

or `NaN`

to
be returned, otherwise `NA`

and `NaN`

values are ignored.

Logical true values are regarded as one, false values as zero.
For historical reasons, `NULL`

is accepted and treated as if it
were `integer(0)`

.

Loss of accuracy can occur when summing values of different signs: this can even occur for sufficiently long integer inputs if the partial sums would cause integer overflow. Where possible extended-precision accumulators are used, typically well supported with C99 and newer, but possibly platform-dependent.

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

`colSums`

for row and column sums.

# NOT RUN { <!-- % for beginners --> # } # NOT RUN { ## Pass a vector to sum, and it will add the elements together. sum(1:5) ## Pass several numbers to sum, and it also adds the elements. sum(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) ## In fact, you can pass vectors into several arguments, and everything gets added. sum(1:2, 3:5) ## If there are missing values, the sum is unknown, i.e., also missing, .... sum(1:5, NA) ## ... unless we exclude missing values explicitly: sum(1:5, NA, na.rm = TRUE) # }