Creates a bar plot with vertical or horizontal bars.

`barplot(height, …)`# S3 method for default
barplot(height, width = 1, space = NULL,
names.arg = NULL, legend.text = NULL, beside = FALSE,
horiz = FALSE, density = NULL, angle = 45,
col = NULL, border = par("fg"),
main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL,
xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL, xpd = TRUE, log = "",
axes = TRUE, axisnames = TRUE,
cex.axis = par("cex.axis"), cex.names = par("cex.axis"),
inside = TRUE, plot = TRUE, axis.lty = 0, offset = 0,
add = FALSE, ann = !add && par("ann"), args.legend = NULL, …)

# S3 method for formula
barplot(formula, data, subset, na.action,
horiz = FALSE, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, …)

height

either a vector or matrix of values describing the
bars which make up the plot. If `height`

is a vector, the
plot consists of a sequence of rectangular bars with heights
given by the values in the vector. If `height`

is a matrix
and `beside`

is `FALSE`

then each bar of the plot
corresponds to a column of `height`

, with the values in the
column giving the heights of stacked sub-bars making up the
bar. If `height`

is a matrix and `beside`

is
`TRUE`

, then the values in each column are juxtaposed
rather than stacked.

width

optional vector of bar widths. Re-cycled to length the
number of bars drawn. Specifying a single value will have no
visible effect unless `xlim`

is specified.

space

the amount of space (as a fraction of the average bar
width) left before each bar. May be given as a single number or
one number per bar. If `height`

is a matrix and
`beside`

is `TRUE`

, `space`

may be specified by
two numbers, where the first is the space between bars in the
same group, and the second the space between the groups. If not
given explicitly, it defaults to `c(0,1)`

if `height`

is a matrix and `beside`

is `TRUE`

, and to 0.2
otherwise.

names.arg

a vector of names to be plotted below each bar or
group of bars. If this argument is omitted, then the names are
taken from the `names`

attribute of `height`

if this
is a vector, or the column names if it is a matrix.

legend.text

a vector of text used to construct a legend for
the plot, or a logical indicating whether a legend should be
included. This is only useful when `height`

is a matrix.
In that case given legend labels should correspond to the rows of
`height`

; if `legend.text`

is true, the row names of
`height`

will be used as labels if they are non-null.

beside

a logical value. If `FALSE`

, the columns of
`height`

are portrayed as stacked bars, and if `TRUE`

the columns are portrayed as juxtaposed bars.

horiz

a logical value. If `FALSE`

, the bars are drawn
vertically with the first bar to the left. If `TRUE`

, the
bars are drawn horizontally with the first at the bottom.

density

a vector giving the density of shading lines, in
lines per inch, for the bars or bar components.
The default value of `NULL`

means that no shading lines
are drawn. Non-positive values of `density`

also inhibit the
drawing of shading lines.

angle

the slope of shading lines, given as an angle in degrees (counter-clockwise), for the bars or bar components.

col

a vector of colors for the bars or bar components.
By default, grey is used if `height`

is a vector, and a
gamma-corrected grey palette if `height`

is a matrix.

border

the color to be used for the border of the bars.
Use `border = NA`

to omit borders. If there are shading
lines, `border = TRUE`

means use the same colour for
the border as for the shading lines.

main,sub

overall and sub title for the plot.

xlab

a label for the x axis.

ylab

a label for the y axis.

xlim

limits for the x axis.

ylim

limits for the y axis.

xpd

logical. Should bars be allowed to go outside region?

log

string specifying if axis scales should be logarithmic; see
`plot.default`

.

axes

logical. If `TRUE`

, a vertical (or horizontal, if
`horiz`

is true) axis is drawn.

axisnames

logical. If `TRUE`

, and if there are
`names.arg`

(see above), the
other axis is drawn (with `lty = 0`

) and labeled.

cex.axis

expansion factor for numeric axis labels.

cex.names

expansion factor for axis names (bar labels).

inside

logical. If `TRUE`

, the lines which divide
adjacent (non-stacked!) bars will be drawn. Only applies when
`space = 0`

(which it partly is when `beside = TRUE`

).

plot

logical. If `FALSE`

, nothing is plotted.

axis.lty

the graphics parameter `lty`

applied to the axis
and tick marks of the categorical (default horizontal) axis. Note
that by default the axis is suppressed.

offset

a vector indicating how much the bars should be shifted relative to the x axis.

add

logical specifying if bars should be added to an already
existing plot; defaults to `FALSE`

.

ann

logical specifying if the default annotation (`main`

,
`sub`

, `xlab`

, `ylab`

) should appear on the plot, see
`title`

.

args.legend

list of additional arguments to pass to
`legend()`

; names of the list are used as argument
names. Only used if `legend.text`

is supplied.

formula

a formula where the `y`

variables are numeric data
to plot against the categorical `x`

variables. The formula
can have one of three forms:

y ~ x y ~ x1 + x2 cbind(y1, y2) ~ x

, see the examples.

data

a data frame (or list) from which the variables in formula should be taken.

subset

an optional vector specifying a subset of observations to be used.

na.action

a function which indicates what should happen when
the data contain `NA`

values. The default is to ignore missing
values in the given variables.

…

arguments to be passed to/from other methods. For the
default method these can include further arguments (such as
`axes`

, `asp`

and `main`

) and
graphical parameters (see `par`

) which are passed to
`plot.window()`

, `title()`

and
`axis`

.

A numeric vector (or matrix, when `beside = TRUE`

), say
`mp`

, giving the coordinates of *all* the bar midpoints
drawn, useful for adding to the graph.

If `beside`

is true, use `colMeans(mp)`

for the
midpoints of each *group* of bars, see example.

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Murrell, P. (2005) *R Graphics*. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

`plot(…, type = "h")`

, `dotchart`

;
`hist`

for bars of a *continuous* variable.
`mosaicplot()`

, more sophisticated to visualize
*several* categorical variables.

# NOT RUN { # Formula method barplot(GNP ~ Year, data = longley) barplot(cbind(Employed, Unemployed) ~ Year, data = longley) ## 3rd form of formula - 2 categories : op <- par(mfrow = 2:1, mgp = c(3,1,0)/2, mar = .1+c(3,3:1)) summary(d.Titanic <- as.data.frame(Titanic)) barplot(Freq ~ Class + Survived, data = d.Titanic, subset = Age == "Adult" & Sex == "Male", main = "barplot(Freq ~ Class + Survived, *)", ylab = "# {passengers}", legend = TRUE) # Corresponding table : (xt <- xtabs(Freq ~ Survived + Class + Sex, d.Titanic, subset = Age=="Adult")) # Alternatively, a mosaic plot : mosaicplot(xt[,,"Male"], main = "mosaicplot(Freq ~ Class + Survived, *)", color=TRUE) par(op) # Default method require(grDevices) # for colours tN <- table(Ni <- stats::rpois(100, lambda = 5)) r <- barplot(tN, col = rainbow(20)) #- type = "h" plotting *is* 'bar'plot lines(r, tN, type = "h", col = "red", lwd = 2) barplot(tN, space = 1.5, axisnames = FALSE, sub = "barplot(..., space= 1.5, axisnames = FALSE)") barplot(VADeaths, plot = FALSE) barplot(VADeaths, plot = FALSE, beside = TRUE) mp <- barplot(VADeaths) # default tot <- colMeans(VADeaths) text(mp, tot + 3, format(tot), xpd = TRUE, col = "blue") barplot(VADeaths, beside = TRUE, col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan", "lavender", "cornsilk"), legend = rownames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0, 100)) title(main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4) hh <- t(VADeaths)[, 5:1] mybarcol <- "gray20" mp <- barplot(hh, beside = TRUE, col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan", "lavender"), legend = colnames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0,100), main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4, sub = "Faked upper 2*sigma error bars", col.sub = mybarcol, cex.names = 1.5) segments(mp, hh, mp, hh + 2*sqrt(1000*hh/100), col = mybarcol, lwd = 1.5) stopifnot(dim(mp) == dim(hh)) # corresponding matrices mtext(side = 1, at = colMeans(mp), line = -2, text = paste("Mean", formatC(colMeans(hh))), col = "red") # Bar shading example barplot(VADeaths, angle = 15+10*1:5, density = 20, col = "black", legend = rownames(VADeaths)) title(main = list("Death Rates in Virginia", font = 4)) # Border color barplot(VADeaths, border = "dark blue") # } # NOT RUN { <!-- % lwd = 2 << not passed --> # } # NOT RUN { <!-- %notyet barplot(VADeaths, inside = FALSE, main = "barplot(*, inside = FALSE)") --> # } # NOT RUN { # Log scales (not much sense here) barplot(tN, col = heat.colors(12), log = "y") barplot(tN, col = gray.colors(20), log = "xy") # Legend location barplot(height = cbind(x = c(465, 91) / 465 * 100, y = c(840, 200) / 840 * 100, z = c(37, 17) / 37 * 100), beside = FALSE, width = c(465, 840, 37), col = c(1, 2), legend.text = c("A", "B"), args.legend = list(x = "topleft")) # }

Run the code above in your browser using DataCamp Workspace