# layout

##### Specifying Complex Plot Arrangements

`layout`

divides the device up into as many rows and columns as
there are in matrix `mat`

, with the column-widths and the
row-heights specified in the respective arguments.

- Keywords
- dplot, environment, iplot

##### Usage

```
layout(mat, widths = rep.int(1, ncol(mat)),
heights = rep.int(1, nrow(mat)), respect = FALSE)
```layout.show(n = 1)
lcm(x)

##### Arguments

- mat
a matrix object specifying the location of the next \(N\) figures on the output device. Each value in the matrix must be

`0`

or a positive integer. If \(N\) is the largest positive integer in the matrix, then the integers \(\{1, \dots, N-1\}\) must also appear at least once in the matrix.- widths
a vector of values for the widths of columns on the device. Relative widths are specified with numeric values. Absolute widths (in centimetres) are specified with the

`lcm()`

function (see examples).- heights
a vector of values for the heights of rows on the device. Relative and absolute heights can be specified, see

`widths`

above.- respect
either a logical value or a matrix object. If the latter, then it must have the same dimensions as

`mat`

and each value in the matrix must be either`0`

or`1`

.- n
number of figures to plot.

- x
a dimension to be interpreted as a number of centimetres.

##### Details

Figure \(i\) is allocated a region composed from a subset
of these rows and columns, based on the rows and columns
in which \(i\) occurs in `mat`

.

The `respect`

argument controls whether a unit column-width is
the same physical measurement on the device as a unit row-height.

There is a limit (currently 200) for the numbers of rows and columns in the layout, and also for the total number of cells (10007).

`layout.show(n)`

plots (part of) the current layout, namely the
outlines of the next `n`

figures.

`lcm`

is a trivial function, to be used as *the* interface
for specifying absolute dimensions for the `widths`

and
`heights`

arguments of `layout()`

.

##### Value

`layout`

returns the number of figures, \(N\), see above.

##### Warnings

These functions are totally incompatible with the other mechanisms for
arranging plots on a device: `par(mfrow)`

,
`par(mfcol)`

and `split.screen`

.

##### References

Murrell, P. R. (1999).
Layouts: A mechanism for arranging plots on a page.
*Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics*,
**8**, 121--134.
10.2307/1390924.

Chapter 5 of Paul Murrell's Ph.D. thesis.

Murrell, P. (2005).
*R Graphics*.
Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

##### See Also

`par`

with arguments `mfrow`

, `mfcol`

, or
`mfg`

.

##### Examples

`library(graphics)`

```
# NOT RUN {
def.par <- par(no.readonly = TRUE) # save default, for resetting...
## divide the device into two rows and two columns
## allocate figure 1 all of row 1
## allocate figure 2 the intersection of column 2 and row 2
layout(matrix(c(1,1,0,2), 2, 2, byrow = TRUE))
## show the regions that have been allocated to each plot
layout.show(2)
## divide device into two rows and two columns
## allocate figure 1 and figure 2 as above
## respect relations between widths and heights
nf <- layout(matrix(c(1,1,0,2), 2, 2, byrow = TRUE), respect = TRUE)
layout.show(nf)
## create single figure which is 5cm square
nf <- layout(matrix(1), widths = lcm(5), heights = lcm(5))
layout.show(nf)
##-- Create a scatterplot with marginal histograms -----
x <- pmin(3, pmax(-3, stats::rnorm(50)))
y <- pmin(3, pmax(-3, stats::rnorm(50)))
xhist <- hist(x, breaks = seq(-3,3,0.5), plot = FALSE)
yhist <- hist(y, breaks = seq(-3,3,0.5), plot = FALSE)
top <- max(c(xhist$counts, yhist$counts))
xrange <- c(-3, 3)
yrange <- c(-3, 3)
nf <- layout(matrix(c(2,0,1,3),2,2,byrow = TRUE), c(3,1), c(1,3), TRUE)
layout.show(nf)
par(mar = c(3,3,1,1))
plot(x, y, xlim = xrange, ylim = yrange, xlab = "", ylab = "")
par(mar = c(0,3,1,1))
barplot(xhist$counts, axes = FALSE, ylim = c(0, top), space = 0)
par(mar = c(3,0,1,1))
barplot(yhist$counts, axes = FALSE, xlim = c(0, top), space = 0, horiz = TRUE)
par(def.par) #- reset to default
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package graphics, version 3.6.2, License: Part of R 3.6.2*