# plot

##### Generic X-Y Plotting

Generic function for plotting of R objects. For more details about
the graphical parameter arguments, see `par`

.

For simple scatter plots, `plot.default`

will be used.
However, there are `plot`

methods for many R objects,
including `function`

s, `data.frame`

s,
`density`

objects, etc. Use `methods(plot)`

and
the documentation for these.

- Keywords
- hplot

##### Usage

`plot(x, y, …)`

##### Arguments

- x
the coordinates of points in the plot. Alternatively, a single plotting structure, function or

*any R object with a*can be provided.`plot`

method- y
the y coordinates of points in the plot,

*optional*if`x`

is an appropriate structure.- …
Arguments to be passed to methods, such as graphical parameters (see

`par`

). Many methods will accept the following arguments:`type`

what type of plot should be drawn. Possible types are

`"p"`

for**p**oints,`"l"`

for**l**ines,`"b"`

for**b**oth,`"c"`

for the lines part alone of`"b"`

,`"o"`

for both ‘**o**verplotted’,`"h"`

for ‘**h**istogram’ like (or ‘high-density’) vertical lines,`"s"`

for stair**s**teps,`"S"`

for other**s**teps, see ‘Details’ below,`"n"`

for no plotting.

`type`

s give a warning or an error; using, e.g.,`type = "punkte"`

being equivalent to`type = "p"`

for S compatibility. Note that some methods, e.g.`plot.factor`

, do not accept this.`main`

an overall title for the plot: see

`title`

.`sub`

a sub title for the plot: see

`title`

.`xlab`

a title for the x axis: see

`title`

.`ylab`

a title for the y axis: see

`title`

.`asp`

the \(y/x\) aspect ratio, see

`plot.window`

.

##### Details

The two step types differ in their x-y preference: Going from
\((x1,y1)\) to \((x2,y2)\) with \(x1 < x2\), `type = "s"`

moves first horizontal, then vertical, whereas `type = "S"`

moves
the other way around.

##### See Also

`plot.default`

, `plot.formula`

and other
methods; `points`

, `lines`

, `par`

.
For thousands of points, consider using `smoothScatter()`

instead of `plot()`

.

##### Examples

`library(graphics)`

```
# NOT RUN {
require(stats) # for lowess, rpois, rnorm
plot(cars)
lines(lowess(cars))
plot(sin, -pi, 2*pi) # see ?plot.function
## Discrete Distribution Plot:
plot(table(rpois(100, 5)), type = "h", col = "red", lwd = 10,
main = "rpois(100, lambda = 5)")
## Simple quantiles/ECDF, see ecdf() {library(stats)} for a better one:
plot(x <- sort(rnorm(47)), type = "s", main = "plot(x, type = \"s\")")
points(x, cex = .5, col = "dark red")
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package graphics, version 3.6.2, License: Part of R 3.6.2*

### Community examples

**rdocumentationorg@mennovr.nl**at Nov 17, 2020 graphics v3.6.2

```r # Plot with multiple lines in different color: plot(sin,-pi, 4*pi, col = "red") plot(cos,-pi, 4*pi, col = "blue", add = TRUE) ```

**rdocumentationorg@mennovr.nl**at Nov 17, 2020 graphics v3.6.2

```r ## Plot with multiple lines in different color: plot(sin,-pi, 4*pi, col = "red") plot(cos,-pi, 4*pi, col = "blue", add = TRUE) ```

**Luis Alberto**at Sep 4, 2019 graphics v3.6.1

plot(basedata1$iq, basedata$read_ab, main="Diagrama de DispersiĆ³n", xlab = "read_ab", ylab = "iq")

**ltseiden@gmail.com**at Dec 13, 2020 graphics v3.4.0

## Linear Regression Example Plot points and add linear regression model line: ```r linreg <- lm(dist ~ speed, cars) linreg_coeffs <- coef(linreg) lineq <- paste("distance = ", linreg_coeffs[2], " * speed + ", linreg_coeffs[1]) plot(cars, main = "Car distance by speed", sub = lineq, xlab = "speed", ylab = "distance", pch = 19) abline(linreg, col = "blue") ```

**richie@datacamp.com**at Jan 17, 2017 graphics v3.3.2

Pass a numeric vector to the `x` and `y` arguments, and you get a scatter plot. The `main` argument provides a [`title()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/title). ```{r} plot(1:100, (1:100) ^ 2, main = "plot(1:100, (1:100) ^ 2)") ``` If you only pass a single argument, it is interpreted as the `y` argument, and the `x` argument is the sequence from 1 to the length of `y`. ```{r} plot((1:100) ^ 2, main = "plot((1:100) ^ 2)") ``` `cex` ("character expansion") controls the size of points. `lwd` controls the line width. `pch` controls the shape of points - you get 25 symbols to choose from, as well as alphabetic characters. `col` controls the color of the points. When `pch` is `21:25`, the points also get a background color which is set using `bg`. [`points()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/points) for more on how to change the appearance of points in a scatter plot. ```{r} plot( 1:25, cex = 3, lwd = 3, pch = 1:25, col = rainbow(25), bg = c(rep(NA, 20), terrain.colors(5)), main = "plot(1:25, pch = 1:25, ...)" ) ``` If you specify `type = "l"`, you get a line plot instead. See [`plot.default()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/plot.default) for a demonstration of all the possible values for type. ```{r} plot( (1:100) ^ 2, type = "l", main = 'plot((1:100) ^ 2, type = "l")' ) ``` `lty` controls the line type. `col` and `lwd` work in the same way as with points. [`lines()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/lines) for more on how to change the appearance of lines in a line plot. ```{r} plot( (1:100) ^ 2, type = "l", lty = "dashed", lwd = 3, col = "chocolate", main = 'plot((1:100) ^ 2, type = "l", lty = "dashed", ...)' ) ``` It is best practise to keep your `x` and `y` variables together, rather than as separate variables. ```{r} with( cars, plot(speed, dist, main = "with(cars, plot(speed, dist))") ) ``` The formula interface, similar to modeling functions like [`lm()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/stats/topics/lm), makes this convenient. See [`plot.formula()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/plot.formula) for more information. ```{r} plot( dist ~ speed, data = cars, main = "plot(dist ~ speed, data = cars)" ) ``` If you pass a two column data frame or matrix then the columns are treated as the x and y values. So in this case, you can simply do: ```{r} plot(cars, main = "plot(cars)") ``` The [`lines()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/lines), [`points()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/points) and [`title()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/title) functions add lines, points and titles respectively to an existing plot. ```{r} plot(cars) lines(lowess(cars)) title("plot(cars); lines(lowess(cars))") ``` If the `x` variable is categorical, `plot()` knows to draw a box plot instead of a scatter plot. See [`boxplot()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/boxplot) for more information on drawing those. ```{r} with( sleep, plot(group, extra, main = "with(sleep, plot(group, extra))") ) ``` Again, the formula interface can be useful here. ```{r} plot(extra ~ group, sleep, main = "plot(extra ~ group, sleep)") ``` Axis limits can be set using `xlim` and `ylim`. ```{r} plot( (1:100) ^ 2, xlim = c(-100, 200), ylim = c(2500, 7500), main = "plot((1:100) ^ 2, xlim = c(-100, 200), ylim = c(2500, 7500))" ) ``` You can set log-scale axes using the `log` argument. ```{r} plot( exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), main = "plot(exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10))" ) plot( exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), log = "x", main = 'plot(exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), log = "x")' ) plot( exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), log = "y", main = 'plot(exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), log = "y")' ) plot( exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), log = "xy", main = 'plot(exp(1:10), 2 ^ (1:10), log = "xy")' ) ``` If you pass a table of counts for a vector, `plot()` draws a simple histogram-like plot. See [`hist()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/hist) for a more comprehensive histogram function. ```{r} plot( table(rpois(100, 5)), main = "plot(table(rpois(100, 5)))" ) ``` For multi-dimensional tables, you get a mosaic plot. See [`mosaicplot()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/mosaicplot) for more information. ```{r} plot( table(X = rpois(100, 5), Y = rbinom(100, 10, 0.75)), main = "plot(table(X = rpois(100, 5), Y = rbinom(100, 10, 0.75)))" ) ``` You can also pass functions to plot. See [`curve()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/curve) for more examples. ```{r} plot( sin, from = -pi, to = 2 * pi, main = "plot(sin, from = -pi, to = 2 * pi)" ) ``` Use the axis function to give fine control over how the axes are created. See [`axis()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/axis) and [`Axis()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/Axis) for more info. ```{r} plot( sin, from = -pi, to = 2 * pi, axes = FALSE, main = "plot(sin, axes = FALSE, ...); axis(1, ...); axis(2)" ) axis( 1, # bottom axis pi * (-1:2), c(expression(-pi), 0, expression(pi), expression(2 * pi)) ) axis(2) # left axis ``` Further graphical parameters can be set using [`par()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/topics/par). See [`with_par()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/withr/topics/with_par) for the best way to use `par()`. ```{r} old_pars <- par(las = 1) # horizontal axis labels plot((1:100) ^ 2, main = "par(las = 1); plot((1:100) ^ 2)") par(old_pars) # reset parameters ```