Create tables in LaTeX, HTML, Markdown and reStructuredText

This is a very simple table generator. It is simple by design. It is not intended to replace any other R packages for making tables.

kable(x, format, digits = getOption("digits"), row.names = NA, col.names = NA, align, 
    caption = NULL, format.args = list(), escape = TRUE, ...)
an R object (typically a matrix or data frame)
a character string; possible values are latex, html, markdown, pandoc, and rst; this will be automatically determined if the function is called within knitr; it can also be set in
the maximum number of digits for numeric columns (passed to round()); it can also be a vector of length ncol(x) to set the number of digits for individual columns
a logical value indicating whether to include row names; by default, row names are included if rownames(x) is neither NULL nor identical to 1:nrow(x)
a character vector of column names to be used in the table
the alignment of columns: a character vector consisting of 'l' (left), 'c' (center) and/or 'r' (right); by default, numeric columns are right-aligned, and other columns are left-aligned; if align = NULL,
the table caption
a list of arguments to be passed to format() to format table values, e.g. list(big.mark = ',')
escape special characters when producing HTML or LaTeX tables
other arguments (see examples)

  • A character vector of the table source code.


The tables for format = 'markdown' also work for Pandoc when the pipe_tables extension is enabled (this is the default behavior for Pandoc >= 1.10). When using kable() as a top-level expression, you do not need to explicitly print() it due to R's automatic implicit printing. When it is wrapped inside other expressions (such as a for loop), you must explicitly print(kable(...)).


See https://github.com/yihui/knitr-examples/blob/master/091-knitr-table.Rnw for some examples in LaTeX, but they also apply to other document formats.

See Also

Other R packages such as xtable and tables for HTML and LaTeX tables, and ascii and pander for different flavors of markdown output and some advanced features and table styles.

  • kable
kable(head(iris), format = "latex")
kable(head(iris), format = "html")
kable(head(iris), format = "latex", caption = "Title of the table")
kable(head(iris), format = "html", caption = "Title of the table")
# use the booktabs package
kable(mtcars, format = "latex", booktabs = TRUE)
# use the longtable package
kable(matrix(1000, ncol = 5), format = "latex", digits = 2, longtable = TRUE)
# add some table attributes
kable(head(iris), format = "html", table.attr = "id="mytable"")
# reST output
kable(head(mtcars), format = "rst")
# no row names
kable(head(mtcars), format = "rst", row.names = FALSE)
# R Markdown/Github Markdown tables
kable(head(mtcars[, 1:5]), format = "markdown")
# no inner padding
kable(head(mtcars), format = "markdown", padding = 0)
# more padding
kable(head(mtcars), format = "markdown", padding = 2)
# Pandoc tables
kable(head(mtcars), format = "pandoc", caption = "Title of the table")
# format numbers using , as decimal point, and ' as thousands separator
x = as.data.frame(matrix(rnorm(60, 1e+06, 10000), 10))
kable(x, format.args = list(decimal.mark = ",", big.mark = "'"))
# save the value
x = kable(mtcars, format = "html")
cat(x, sep = "\n")
# can also set options(knitr.table.format = 'html') so that the output is HTML
Documentation reproduced from package knitr, version 1.12.3, License: GPL

Community examples

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