# primersearch

0th

Percentile

##### Use EMBOSS primersearch for in silico PCR

A pair of primers are aligned against a set of sequences. The location of the best hits, quality of match, and predicted amplicons are returned. Requires the EMBOSS tool kit (http://emboss.sourceforge.net/) to be installed.

##### Usage
primersearch(input = NULL, file = NULL, forward, reverse, mismatch = 5)
##### Arguments
input

(character) One of the following:

A character vector of sequences

See the example below for what this looks like. The parser read_fasta produces output like this.

A list of character vectors

Each vector should have one base per element.

A "DNAbin" object

This is the result of parsers like read.FASTA.

This is the result of parsers like read.fasta.

Either "input" or "file" must be supplied but not both.
file

The path to a FASTA file containing sequences to use. Either "input" or "file" must be supplied but not both.

forward

(character of length 1) The forward primer sequence

reverse

(character of length 1) The reverse primer sequence

mismatch

An integer vector of length 1. The percentage of mismatches allowed.

##### Details

It can be confusing how the primer sequence relates to the binding sites on a reference database sequence. A simplified diagram can help. For example, if the top strand below (5' -> 3') is the database sequence, the forward primer has the same sequence as the target region, since it will bind to the other strand (3' -> 5') during PCR and extend on the 3' end. However, the reverse primer must bind to the database strand, so it will have to be the complement of the reference sequence. It also has to be reversed to make it in the standard 5' -> 3' orientation. Therefore, the reverse primer must be the reverse complement of its binding site on the reference sequence.

Primer 1: 5' AAGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG 3'
Primer 2: 5' GCTCCACCTACGAAACGAAT   3'<- TAAGCAAAGCATCCACCTCG 5'
5' ...AAGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG......ATTCGTTTCGTAGGTGGAGC... 3'3' ...TTCATGGAATTGCCTTAATATC......TAAGCAAAGCATCCACCTCG... 5'
5' AAGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG ->


However, a database might have either the top or the bottom strand as a reference sequence. Since one implies the sequence of the other, either is valid, but this is another source of confusion. If we take the diagram above and rotate it 180 degrees, it would mean the same thing, but which primer we would want to call "forward" and which we would want to call "reverse" would change. Databases of a single locus (e.g. Greengenes) will likely have a convention for which strand will be present, so relative to this convention, there is a distinct "forward" and "reverse". However, computers dont know about this convention, so the "forward" primer is whichever primer has the same sequence as its binding region in the database (as opposed to the reverse complement). For this reason, primersearch will redefine which primer is "forward" and which is "reverse" based on how it binds the reference sequence. See the example code for a demonstration of this.

##### Value

A table with one row per predicted amplicon with the following info:

           (f_primer)
5' AAGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG ->        (r_primer)
<- TAAGCAAAGCATCCACCTCG 5'
5' ...AAGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG......ATTCGTTTCGTAGGTGGAGC... 3'
^                    ^      ^                  ^
f_start              f_end   r_rtart             r_end

|--------------------||----||------------------|
f_match       amplicon       r_match
|----------------------------------------------|
product

f_mismatch: The number of mismatches on the forward primer
r_mismatch: The number of mismatches on the reverse primer
input: The index of the input sequence


##### Installing EMBOSS

The command-line tool "primersearch" from the EMBOSS tool kit is needed to use this function. How you install EMBOSS will depend on your operating system:

Linux:

Open up a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install emboss

Mac OSX:

The easiest way to install EMBOSS on OSX is to use homebrew. After installing homebrew, open up a terminal and type:

brew install homebrew/science/emboss

Windows:

There is an installer for Windows here:

ftp://emboss.open-bio.org/pub/EMBOSS/windows/mEMBOSS-6.5.0.0-setup.exe

• primersearch
##### Examples
# NOT RUN {
### Dummy test data set ###

primer_1_site <- "AAGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG"
primer_2_site <- "ATTCGTTTCGTAGGTGGAGC"
amplicon <- "NNNAGTGGATAGATAGGGGTTCTGTGGCGTTTGGGAATTAAAGATTAGAGANNN"
seq_1 <- paste0("AA", primer_1_site, amplicon, primer_2_site, "AAAA")
seq_2 <- rev_comp(seq_1)
f_primer <- "ACGTACCTTAACGGAATTATAG" # Note the "C" mismatch at position 2
r_primer <- rev_comp(primer_2_site)
seqs <- c(a = seq_1, b = seq_2)

result <- primersearch(seqs, forward = f_primer, reverse = r_primer)

### Real data set ###

# Get example FASTA file
fasta_path <- system.file(file.path("extdata", "silva_subset.fa"),
package = "metacoder")

# Parse the FASTA file as a taxmap object
obj <- parse_silva_fasta(file = fasta_path)

# Simulate PCR with primersearch
pcr_result <- primersearch(obj$data$tax_data$silva_seq, forward = c("U519F" = "CAGYMGCCRCGGKAAHACC"), reverse = c("Arch806R" = "GGACTACNSGGGTMTCTAAT"), mismatch = 10) # Add result to input table # NOTE: We want to add a function to handle running pcr on a # taxmap object directly, but we are still trying to figure out # the best way to implement it. For now, do the following: obj$data$pcr <- pcr_result obj$data$pcr$taxon_id <- obj$data$tax_data$taxon_id[pcr_result$input]

# Visualize which taxa were amplified
#  This work because only amplicons are returned by primersearch
n_amplified <- unlist(obj$obs_apply("pcr", function(x) length(unique(x)), value = "input")) prop_amped <- n_amplified / obj$n_obs()
heat_tree(obj,
node_label = taxon_names,
node_color = prop_amped,
node_color_range = c("grey", "red", "purple", "green"),
node_color_trans = "linear",
node_color_axis_label = "Proportion amplified",
node_size = n_obs,
node_size_axis_label = "Number of sequences",
layout = "da",
initial_layout = "re")

# }
# NOT RUN {
# }

Documentation reproduced from package metacoder, version 0.2.1, License: GPL-2 | GPL-3

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