# SeatBelt

##### Seat Belt Usage and Traffic Fatalities

yearly observations of 51 states

*number of observations* : 765

*number of time-series * : 15

*country* : United States

*JEL codes: *R41, K42

*Chapter* : 06

- Keywords
- datasets

##### Usage

`data(SeatBelt)`

##### Format

A dataframe containing:

- state
the state code

- year
the year

- farsocc
the number of traffic fatalities of drivers and passengers (of any seating position) of a motor vehicule in transport

- farsnocc
the number of traffic fatalities of pedestrians and bicyclists

- usage
rate of seat belt usage

- percapin
median income in current US dollars

- unemp
unemployment rate

- meanage
mean age

- precentb
the percentage of african-americans in the state population

- precenth
the percentage of people of hispanic origin in the state population

- densurb
traffic density urban ; registered vehicules per unit length of urban roads in miles

- densrur
traffic density rural ; registered vehicules per unit length of urban roads in miles

- viopcap
number of violent crimes (homicide, rape and robbery) per capita

- proppcap
number of preperty rimes (burglary, larceny and auto theft) per capita

- vmtrural
vehicule miles traveled on rural roads

- vmturban
vehicule miles traveled on urban roads

- fueltax
fuel tax (in curent cents)

- lim65
65 miles per hour speed limit (55 mph is the base category)

- lim70p
70 miles per hour or above speed limit (55 mph is the base caegory)

- mlda21
a dummy variable that is equal to 1 for a minimum for a minimum legal drinking age of 21 years (18 years is the base category)

- bac08
a dummy variable that is equal to 1 foe a maximum of 0.08 blood alcohol content (0.1 is the base category)

- ds
a dummy equal to 1 for the periods in which the state had a secondary-enforcement mandatory seat belt law, or a primary-enforcement law that preceded by a secondary-enforcement law (no seat belt law is the base category)

- dp
a dummy variable eqal to 1 for the periods in which the state had a primary-enforcement mandatory seat belt law that was not preceded by a secondary-enforcement law (no seat belt is the base category)

- dsp
a dummy variable equal to 1 for the periods in which the state had a primary-enforcement mandatory seat belt law that was preceded by a secondary enforcement law (no seat belt law is the base category

##### References

Cohen, Alma and Liran Einav (2003) “The Effects of Mandatory Seat Belt Laws on Driving Behavior and Traffic Fatalities”, *The Review of Economics and Statistics*, **85(4)**, 828-843, 10.2139/ssrn.293582
.

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
#### Example 6-1
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------
library("plm")
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------
y ~ x1 + x2 + x3 | x1 + x3 + z
y ~ x1 + x2 + x3 | . - x2 + z
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------
data("SeatBelt", package = "pder")
SeatBelt$occfat <- with(SeatBelt, log(farsocc / (vmtrural + vmturban)))
ols <- plm(occfat ~ log(usage) + log(percapin) + log(unemp) + log(meanage) +
log(precentb) + log(precenth)+ log(densrur) +
log(densurb) + log(viopcap) + log(proppcap) +
log(vmtrural) + log(vmturban) + log(fueltax) +
lim65 + lim70p + mlda21 + bac08, SeatBelt,
effect = "time")
fe <- update(ols, effect = "twoways")
ivfe <- update(fe, . ~ . | . - log(usage) + ds + dp +dsp)
rbind(ols = coef(summary(ols))[1,],
fe = coef(summary(fe))[1, ],
w2sls = coef(summary(ivfe))[1, ])
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------
SeatBelt$noccfat <- with(SeatBelt, log(farsnocc / (vmtrural + vmturban)))
nivfe <- update(ivfe, noccfat ~ . | .)
coef(summary(nivfe))[1, ]
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package pder, version 1.0-1, License: GPL (>= 2)*