Interpolate a formula

Interpolation replaces sub-expressions of the form UQ(x) with the evaluated value of x, and inlines sub-expressions of the form UQS(x). Syntactic shortcuts are provided for unquoting and unquote-splicing by prefixing with !! and !!!.

A one-sided formula or a function.
For UQ and UQF, a formula. For UQS, a a vector.

Formally, interp is a quasiquote function, UQ() is the unquote operator, and UQS() is the unquote splice operator. These terms have a rich history in LISP, and live on in modern languages like and

  • UQ
  • UQE
  • UQF
  • UQS
  • interp
interp(x ~ 1 + UQ(1 + 2 + 3) + 10)

# Use UQS() if you want to add multiple arguments to a function
# It must evaluate to a list
args <- list(1:10, na.rm = TRUE)
interp(~ mean( UQS(args) ))

# You can combine the two
var <- quote(xyz)
extra_args <- list(trim = 0.9)
interp(~ mean( UQ(var) , UQS(extra_args) ))

foo <- function(n) {
  ~ 1 + UQ(n)
f <- foo(10)

# You can also unquote and splice syntactically with bang operators:
interp(~mean(!!! args))

# However you need to be a bit careful with operator precedence.
# All arithmetic and comparison operators bind more tightly than `!`:
interp(x ~ 1 +  !! (1 + 2 + 3) + 10)
interp(x ~ 1 + (!! (1 + 2 + 3)) + 10)

# When a formula is unquoted, interp() checks whether its
# environment is informative. It is not informative when the object
# within the formula is a constant (for example, a string) or when
# the environment recorded in the formula is the same as the outer
# formula in which it is unquoted. In those cases, the formula is
# embedded as is:
var <- ~letters

# On the other hand, if the environment is informative (i.e., if
# the symbols within the inner formula could represent other
# objects than in the outer formula because they have different
# scopes), it is embedded as a promise:
var <- local(~letters)

# The formula-promise representation is necessary to preserve scope
# information and make sure objects are looked up in the right
# place. However, there are situations where it can get in the way.
# This is the case when you deal with non-tidy NSE functions that do
# not understand formulas. You can inline the RHS of a formula in a
# call thanks to the UQE() operator:
nse_function <- function(arg) substitute(arg)
var <- ~foo(bar)

# This is equivalent to unquoting and taking the RHS:
interp(~nse_function(!! f_rhs(var)))

# One of the most important old-style NSE function is the dollar
# operator. You need to use UQE() for subsetting with dollar:
var <- ~cyl

# `!!`() is also treated as a shortcut. It is meant for situations
# where the bang operator would not parse, such as subsetting with
# $. Since that's its main purpose, we've made it a shortcut for
# UQE() rather than UQ():
var <- ~cyl

# Sometimes you would like to unquote an object containing a
# formula but include it as is rather than treating it as a
# promise. You can use UQF() for this purpose:
var <- disp ~ am
interp(~lm(!!var, mtcars))
interp(~lm(UQF(var), mtcars))
f_eval(~lm(UQF(var), mtcars))

# Finally, you can also interpolate a closure's body. This is
# useful to inline a function within another:
other_fn <- function(x) toupper(x)
fn <- interp(function(x) {
  x <- paste0(x, "_suffix")
  !!! body(other_fn)
Documentation reproduced from package rlang, version, License: GPL-3

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