# tail

0th

Percentile

##### Return the First or Last Part of an Object

Returns the first or last parts of a vector, matrix, table, data frame or function. Since head() and tail() are generic functions, they may also have been extended to other classes.

##### Usage
# S3 method for SO3
tail(x, n = 6L, addrownums = TRUE, ...)# S3 method for Q4
tail(x, n = 6L, addrownums = TRUE, ...)
##### Arguments
x

an object

n

a single integer. If positive or zero, size for the resulting object: number of elements for a vector (including lists), rows for a matrix or data frame or lines for a function. If negative, all but the n last/first number of elements of x.

if there are no row names, create them from the row numbers.

...

arguments to be passed to or from other methods.

##### Details

For matrices, 2-dim tables and data frames, head() (tail()) returns the first (last) n rows when n >= 0 or all but the last (first) n rows when n < 0. head.matrix() and tail.matrix() are exported. For functions, the lines of the deparsed function are returned as character strings.

If a matrix has no row names, then tail() will add row names of the form "[n,]" to the result, so that it looks similar to the last lines of x when printed. Setting addrownums = FALSE suppresses this behaviour.

##### Value

An object (usually) like x but generally smaller. For ftable objects x, a transformed format(x).

• tail
• tail.SO3
• tail.Q4
##### Examples
# NOT RUN {
head(letters, n = -6L)

head(freeny.x, n = 10L)

tail(letters)
tail(letters, n = -6L)

tail(freeny.x)
tail(freeny.y)

tail(library)