boston

0th

Percentile

Corrected Boston Housing Data

The boston.c data frame has 506 rows and 20 columns. It contains the Harrison and Rubinfeld (1978) data corrected for a few minor errors and augmented with the latitude and longitude of the observations. Gilley and Pace also point out that MEDV is censored, in that median values at or over USD 50,000 are set to USD 50,000. The original data set without the corrections is also included in package mlbench as BostonHousing. In addition, a matrix of tract point coordinates projected to UTM zone 19 is included as boston.utm, and a sphere of influence neighbours list as boston.soi.

Keywords
datasets
Usage
data(boston)
Note

Details of the creation of the tract shapefile given in final don't run block; tract boundaries for 1990: http://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/cbf/cbf_tracts.html then choose 1990 Census and Massachusetts to download: tr25_d90_shp.zip, counties in the BOSTON SMSA http://www.census.gov/population/metro/files/lists/historical/63mfips.txt; tract conversion table 1980/1970: https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/7913?q=07913&permit[0]=AVAILABLE, http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cgi-bin/bob/zipcart2?path=ICPSR&study=7913&bundle=all&ds=1&dups=yes

Format

This data frame contains the following columns:

Source

Formerly at “http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/datasets/boston\_corrected.txt” which is now offline, also as data(BostonHousing2, package="mlbench")

References

Harrison, David, and Daniel L. Rubinfeld, Hedonic Housing Prices and the Demand for Clean Air, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Volume 5, (1978), 81-102. Original data.

Gilley, O.W., and R. Kelley Pace, On the Harrison and Rubinfeld Data, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 31 (1996), 403-405. Provided corrections and examined censoring.

Pace, R. Kelley, and O.W. Gilley, Using the Spatial Configuration of the Data to Improve Estimation, Journal of the Real Estate Finance and Economics, 14 (1997), 333-340.

Aliases
  • boston.c
  • boston
  • boston.soi
  • boston.utm
Examples
data(boston)
hr0 <- lm(log(MEDV) ~ CRIM + ZN + INDUS + CHAS + I(NOX^2) + I(RM^2) +
 AGE + log(DIS) + log(RAD) + TAX + PTRATIO + B + log(LSTAT), data=boston.c)
summary(hr0)
logLik(hr0)
gp0 <- lm(log(CMEDV) ~ CRIM + ZN + INDUS + CHAS + I(NOX^2) + I(RM^2) +
 AGE + log(DIS) + log(RAD) + TAX + PTRATIO + B + log(LSTAT), data=boston.c)
summary(gp0)
logLik(gp0)
lm.morantest(hr0, nb2listw(boston.soi))
## Not run: 
# require(maptools)
# boston.tr <- readShapePoly(system.file("etc/shapes/boston_tracts.shp",
#   package="spdep")[1], ID="poltract",
#   proj4string=CRS(paste("+proj=longlat +datum=NAD27 +no_defs +ellps=clrk66",
#   "+nadgrids=@conus,@alaska,@ntv2_0.gsb,@ntv1_can.dat")))
# boston_nb <- poly2nb(boston.tr)
# ## End(Not run)
## Not run: gp1 <- errorsarlm(log(CMEDV) ~ CRIM + ZN + INDUS + CHAS + I(NOX^2)
#  + I(RM^2) +  AGE + log(DIS) + log(RAD) + TAX + PTRATIO + B + log(LSTAT),
#  data=boston.c, nb2listw(boston.soi), method="Matrix", 
#  control=list(tol.opt = .Machine$double.eps^(1/4)))
# summary(gp1)
# gp2 <- lagsarlm(log(CMEDV) ~ CRIM + ZN + INDUS + CHAS + I(NOX^2) + I(RM^2)
#  +  AGE + log(DIS) + log(RAD) + TAX + PTRATIO + B + log(LSTAT),
#  data=boston.c, nb2listw(boston.soi), method="Matrix")
# summary(gp2)## End(Not run)
## Not run: 
# ## Conversion table 1980/1970
# # ICPSR_07913.zip
# # 07913-0001-Data.txt
# # http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07913.v1
# # Provider: ICPSR
# # Content: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
# # 
# # TY  - DATA
# # T1  - Census of Population and Housing 1980 [United States]:
# # 1970-Pre 1980 Tract Relationships
# # AU  - United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
# # DO  - 10.3886/ICPSR07913.v1
# # PY  - 1984-06-28
# # UR  - http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07913.v1
# # PB  - Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
# # (ICPSR) [distributor]
# # ER  -
# # widths <- c(ID=5L, FIPS70State=2L, FIPS70cty=3L, Tract70=6L, FIPS80State=2L,
# #  FIPS80cty=3L, f1=7L, CTC=6L, f2=2L, intersect1=3L, intersect2=3L, name=30L)
# # dta0 <- read.fwf("07913-0001-Data.txt", unname(widths),
# #  col.names=names(widths), colClasses=rep("character", 12), as.is=TRUE)
# # sub <- grep("25", dta0$FIPS80State)
# # MA <- dta0[sub,]
# ## match against boston data set
# # library(spdep)
# # data(boston)
# # bTR <- boston.c$TRACT
# # x1 <- match(as.integer(MA$Tract70), bTR)
# # BOSTON <- MA[!is.na(x1),]
# ## MA 1990 tracts
# # library(rgdal)
# # MAtr90 <- readOGR(".", "tr25_d90")
# ## counties in the BOSTON SMSA
# ## https://www.census.gov/population/metro/files/lists/historical/90nfips.txt
# ## 1123		Boston-Lawrence-Salem-Lowell-Brockton, MA NECMA
# ## 1123 25 009	  Essex County
# ## 1123 25 017	  Middlesex County
# ## 1123 25 021	  Norfolk County
# ## 1123 25 023	  Plymouth County
# ## 1123 25 025	  Suffolk County
# # BOSTON_SMSA <- MAtr90[MAtr90$CO 
# # proj4string(BOSTON_SMSA) <- CRS(paste("+proj=longlat +datum=NAD27 +no_defs",
# #   "+ellps=clrk66 +nadgrids=@conus,@alaska,@ntv2_0.gsb,@ntv1_can.dat"))
# # CTC4 <- substring(BOSTON$CTC, 1, 4)
# # CTC4u <- unique(CTC4)
# # TB_CTC4u <- match(BOSTON_SMSA$TRACTBASE, CTC4u)
# ## match 1980 tracts with 1990
# # BOSTON_SMSA1 <- BOSTON_SMSA[!is.na(TB_CTC4u),]
# ## union Polygons objects with same 1970 tract code
# #library(rgeos)
# # BOSTON_SMSA2 <- gUnaryUnion(BOSTON_SMSA1,
# #  id=as.character(BOSTON_SMSA1$TRACTBASE))
# ## reorder data set
# # mm <- match(as.integer(as.character(row.names(BOSTON_SMSA2))), boston.c$TRACT)
# # df <- boston.c[mm,]
# # row.names(df) <- df$TRACT
# # row.names(BOSTON_SMSA2) <- as.character(as.integer(row.names(BOSTON_SMSA2)))
# ## create SpatialPolygonsDataFrame
# # BOSTON_SMSA3 <- SpatialPolygonsDataFrame(BOSTON_SMSA2,
# #  data=data.frame(poltract=row.names(BOSTON_SMSA2),
# #  row.names=row.names(BOSTON_SMSA2)))
# # BOSTON_SMSA4 <- spCbind(BOSTON_SMSA3, df)
# # mm1 <- match(boston.c$TRACT, row.names(BOSTON_SMSA4))
# # BOSTON_SMSA5 <- BOSTON_SMSA4[mm1,]
# #writeOGR(BOSTON_SMSA5, ".", "boston_tracts", driver="ESRI Shapefile",
# # overwrite_layer=TRUE)
# # moran.test(boston.c$CMEDV, nb2listw(boston.soi))
# # moran.test(BOSTON_SMSA5$CMEDV, nb2listw(boston.soi))
# ## End(Not run)
Documentation reproduced from package spdep, version 0.6-9, License: GPL (>= 2)

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