localG

0th

Percentile

G and Gstar local spatial statistics

The local spatial statistic G is calculated for each zone based on the spatial weights object used. The value returned is a Z-value, and may be used as a diagnostic tool. High positive values indicate the posibility of a local cluster of high values of the variable being analysed, very low relative values a similar cluster of low values. For inference, a Bonferroni-type test is suggested in the references, where tables of critical values may be found (see also details below).

Keywords
spatial
Usage
localG(x, listw, zero.policy=NULL, spChk=NULL)
Arguments
x
a numeric vector the same length as the neighbours list in listw
listw
a listw object created for example by nb2listw
zero.policy
default NULL, use global option value; if TRUE assign zero to the lagged value of zones without neighbours, if FALSE assign NA
spChk
should the data vector names be checked against the spatial objects for identity integrity, TRUE, or FALSE, default NULL to use get.spChkOption()
Details

If the neighbours member of listw has a "self.included" attribute set to TRUE, the Gstar variant, including the self-weight $w_{ii} > 0$, is calculated and returned. The returned vector will have a "gstari" attribute set to TRUE. Self-weights can be included by using the include.self function in the spweights package before converting the neighbour list to a spatial weights list with nb2listw as shown below in the example.

The critical values of the statistic under assumptions given in the references for the 95th percentile are for n=1: 1.645, n=50: 3.083, n=100: 3.289, n=1000: 3.886.

Value

A vector of G or Gstar values, with attributes "gstari" set to TRUE or FALSE, "call" set to the function call, and class "localG".

References

Ord, J. K. and Getis, A. 1995 Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: distributional issues and an application. Geographical Analysis, 27, 286--306; Getis, A. and Ord, J. K. 1996 Local spatial statistics: an overview. In P. Longley and M. Batty (eds) Spatial analysis: modelling in a GIS environment (Cambridge: Geoinformation International), 261--277.

Aliases
  • localG
Examples
data(getisord)
xycoords <- cbind(xyz$x, xyz$y)
nb30 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 30)
G30 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb30, style="B"))
G30[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb60 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 60)
G60 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb60, style="B"))
G60[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb90 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 90)
G90 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb90, style="B"))
G90[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb120 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 120)
G120 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb120, style="B"))
G120[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb150 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 150)
G150 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb150, style="B"))
G150[length(xyz$val)-136]
brks <- seq(-5,5,1)
cm.col <- cm.colors(length(brks)-1)
image(x, y, t(matrix(G30, nrow=16, ncol=16, byrow=TRUE)),
  breaks=brks, col=cm.col, asp=1)
text(xyz$x, xyz$y, round(G30, digits=1), cex=0.7)
polygon(c(195,225,225,195), c(195,195,225,225), lwd=2)
title(main=expression(paste("Values of the ", G[i], " statistic")))
G30s <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(include.self(nb30),
 style="B"))
cat("value according to Getis and Ord's eq. 14.2, p. 263 (1996)\n")
G30s[length(xyz$val)-136]
cat(paste("value given by Getis and Ord (1996), p. 267",
  "(division by n-1 rather than n \n in variance)\n"))
G30s[length(xyz$val)-136] *
  (sqrt(sum(scale(xyz$val, scale=FALSE)^2)/length(xyz$val)) /
  sqrt(var(xyz$val)))
image(x, y, t(matrix(G30s, nrow=16, ncol=16, byrow=TRUE)),
  breaks=brks, col=cm.col, asp=1)
text(xyz$x, xyz$y, round(G30s, digits=1), cex=0.7)
polygon(c(195,225,225,195), c(195,195,225,225), lwd=2)
title(main=expression(paste("Values of the ", G[i]^"*", " statistic")))
Documentation reproduced from package spdep, version 0.6-9, License: GPL (>= 2)

Community examples

Looks like there are no examples yet.