Extract Coefficients in Original Coding

This extracts coefficients in terms of the original levels of the coefficients rather than the coded variables.

dummy.coef(object, …)

# S3 method for lm dummy.coef(object, use.na = FALSE, …)

# S3 method for aovlist dummy.coef(object, use.na = FALSE, …)


a linear model fit.


logical flag for coefficients in a singular model. If use.na is true, undetermined coefficients will be missing; if false they will get one possible value.

arguments passed to or from other methods.


A fitted linear model has coefficients for the contrasts of the factor terms, usually one less in number than the number of levels. This function re-expresses the coefficients in the original coding; as the coefficients will have been fitted in the reduced basis, any implied constraints (e.g., zero sum for contr.helmert or contr.sum) will be respected. There will be little point in using dummy.coef for contr.treatment contrasts, as the missing coefficients are by definition zero.

The method used has some limitations, and will give incomplete results for terms such as poly(x, 2). However, it is adequate for its main purpose, aov models.


A list giving for each term the values of the coefficients. For a multistratum aov model, such a list for each stratum.


This function is intended for human inspection of the output: it should not be used for calculations. Use coded variables for all calculations.

The results differ from S for singular values, where S can be incorrect.

See Also

aov, model.tables

  • dummy.coef
  • dummy.coef.lm
  • dummy.coef.aovlist
library(stats) # NOT RUN { options(contrasts = c("contr.helmert", "contr.poly")) ## From Venables and Ripley (2002) p.165. npk.aov <- aov(yield ~ block + N*P*K, npk) dummy.coef(npk.aov) npk.aovE <- aov(yield ~ N*P*K + Error(block), npk) dummy.coef(npk.aovE) # }
Documentation reproduced from package stats, version 3.5.0, License: Part of R 3.5.0

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