# lag.plot

##### Time Series Lag Plots

Plot time series against lagged versions of themselves. Helps visualizing ‘auto-dependence’ even when auto-correlations vanish.

##### Usage

```
lag.plot(x, lags = 1, layout = NULL, set.lags = 1:lags,
main = NULL, asp = 1,
diag = TRUE, diag.col = "gray", type = "p", oma = NULL,
ask = NULL, do.lines = (n
```

##### Arguments

- x
time-series (univariate or multivariate)

- lags
number of lag plots desired, see arg

`set.lags`

.- layout
the layout of multiple plots, basically the

`mfrow`

`par()`

argument. The default uses about a square layout (see`n2mfrow`

) such that all plots are on one page.- set.lags
vector of positive integers allowing specification of the set of lags used; defaults to

`1:lags`

.- main
character with a main header title to be done on the top of each page.

- asp
Aspect ratio to be fixed, see

`plot.default`

.- diag
logical indicating if the x=y diagonal should be drawn.

- diag.col
color to be used for the diagonal

`if(diag)`

.- type
plot type to be used, but see

`plot.ts`

about its restricted meaning.- oma
outer margins, see

`par`

.- ask
logical or

`NULL`

; if true, the user is asked to confirm before a new page is started.- do.lines
logical indicating if lines should be drawn.

- labels
logical indicating if labels should be used.

- …
Further arguments to

`plot.ts`

. Several graphical parameters are set in this function and so cannot be changed: these include`xlab`

,`ylab`

,`mgp`

,`col.lab`

and`font.lab`

: this also applies to the arguments`xy.labels`

and`xy.lines`

.

##### Details

If just one plot is produced, this is a conventional plot. If more
than one plot is to be produced, `par(mfrow)`

and several other
graphics parameters will be set, so it is not (easily) possible to mix
such lag plots with other plots on the same page.

If `ask = NULL`

, `par(ask = TRUE)`

will be called if more than
one page of plots is to be produced and the device is interactive.

##### Note

It is more flexible and has different default behaviour than
the S version. We use `main =`

instead of `head = `

for
internal consistency.

##### See Also

`plot.ts`

which is the basic work horse.

##### Examples

`library(stats)`

```
# NOT RUN {
require(graphics)
lag.plot(nhtemp, 8, diag.col = "forest green")
lag.plot(nhtemp, 5, main = "Average Temperatures in New Haven")
## ask defaults to TRUE when we have more than one page:
lag.plot(nhtemp, 6, layout = c(2,1), asp = NA,
main = "New Haven Temperatures", col.main = "blue")
## Multivariate (but non-stationary! ...)
lag.plot(freeny.x, lags = 3)
## no lines for long series :
lag.plot(sqrt(sunspots), set = c(1:4, 9:12), pch = ".", col = "gold")
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package stats, version 3.5.0, License: Part of R 3.5.0*