base v3.6.0

The R Base Package

Base R functions.

Functions in base

Name Description
Constants Built-in Constants
Extremes Maxima and Minima
Foreign-internal Internal Versions of the Foreign Function Interface
log Logarithms and Exponentials
Logic Logical Operators
Random.user User-supplied Random Number Generation
Random Random Number Generation
Sys.localeconv Find Details of the Numerical and Monetary Representations in the Current Locale
Sys.readlink Read File Symbolic Links
R.Version Version Information
abbreviate Abbreviate Strings
all.equal Test if Two Objects are (Nearly) Equal
all.names Find All Names in an Expression
as.function Convert Object to Function
asplit Split Array/Matrix By Its Margins
Memory-limits Memory Limits in R
Memory Memory Available for Data Storage
base-package The R Base Package
basename Manipulate File Paths
browserText Functions to Retrieve Values Supplied by Calls to the Browser
builtins Returns the Names of All Built-in Objects
Primitive Look Up a Primitive Function
Quotes Quotes
character Character Vectors
charmatch Partial String Matching
Startup Initialization at Start of an R Session
contributors R Project Contributors
Arithmetic Arithmetic Operators
copyright Copyrights of Files Used to Build R
Syntax Operator Syntax and Precedence
crossprod Matrix Crossproduct
args Argument List of a Function
AsIs Inhibit Interpretation/Conversion of Objects
array Multi-way Arrays
cumsum Cumulative Sums, Products, and Extremes
diag Matrix Diagonals
Extract.data.frame Extract or Replace Parts of a Data Frame
Extract.factor Extract or Replace Parts of a Factor
diff Lagged Differences
drop Drop Redundant Extent Information
attributes Object Attribute Lists
droplevels Drop Unused Levels from Factors
environment Environment Access
eval Evaluate an (Unevaluated) Expression
autoload On-demand Loading of Packages
ISOdatetime Date-time Conversion Functions from Numeric Representations
cbind Combine R Objects by Rows or Columns
file.choose Choose a File Interactively
char.expand Expand a String with Respect to a Target Table
colSums Form Row and Column Sums and Means
file.info Extract File Information
Internal Call an Internal Function
LongVectors Long Vectors
agrep Approximate String Matching (Fuzzy Matching)
MathFun Miscellaneous Mathematical Functions
row+colnames Row and Column Names
all Are All Values True?
assign Assign a Value to a Name
data.frame Data Frames
data.matrix Convert a Data Frame to a Numeric Matrix
force Force Evaluation of an Argument
deparseOpts Options for Expression Deparsing
forceAndCall Call a function with Some Arguments Forced
assignOps Assignment Operators
gctorture Torture Garbage Collector
get Return the Value of a Named Object
is.finite Finite, Infinite and NaN Numbers
det Calculate the Determinant of a Matrix
Cstack_info Report Information on C Stack Size and Usage
base-deprecated Deprecated Functions in Package base
is.function Is an Object of Type (Primitive) Function?
dontCheck Identity Function to Suppress Checking
DateTimeClasses Date-Time Classes
Deprecated Marking Objects as Deprecated
dots …, ..1, etc used in Functions
Encoding Read or Set the Declared Encodings for a Character Vector
base-internal Internal Objects in Package base
dump Text Representations of R Objects
by Apply a Function to a Data Frame Split by Factors
duplicated Determine Duplicate Elements
c Combine Values into a Vector or List
InternalMethods Internal Generic Functions
class Object Classes
expression Unevaluated Expressions
extSoftVersion Report Versions of Third-Party Software
col Column Indexes
complex Complex Numbers and Basic Functionality
La_library LAPACK Library
is.unsorted Test if an Object is Not Sorted
is.R Are we using R, rather than S?
Paren Parentheses and Braces
conditions Condition Handling and Recovery
kronecker Kronecker Products on Arrays
Colon Colon Operator
.Platform Platform Specific Variables
Reserved Reserved Words in R
Rhome Return the R Home Directory
Sys.setFileTime Set File Time
detach Detach Objects from the Search Path
formatDL Format Description Lists
formatC Formatting Using C-style Formats
Sys.setenv Set or Unset Environment Variables
Sys.which Find Full Paths to Executables
Trig Trigonometric Functions
getLoadedDLLs Get DLLs Loaded in Current Session
.Device Lists of Open/Active Graphics Devices
getNativeSymbolInfo Obtain a Description of one or more Native (C/Fortran) Symbols
dimnames Dimnames of an Object
Comparison Relational Operators
l10n_info Localization Information
Bessel Bessel Functions
load Reload Saved Datasets
do.call Execute a Function Call
gettext Translate Text Messages
locales Query or Set Aspects of the Locale
as.Date Date Conversion Functions to and from Character
getwd Get or Set Working Directory
integer Integer Vectors
Dates Date Class
dyn.load Foreign Function Interface
Defunct Marking Objects as Defunct
eapply Apply a Function Over Values in an Environment
format.info format(.) Information
as.POSIX* Date-time Conversion Functions
Foreign Foreign Function Interface
margin.table Compute table margin
CallExternal Modern Interfaces to C/C++ code
interaction Compute Factor Interactions
lengths Lengths of List or Vector Elements
mat.or.vec Create a Matrix or a Vector
message Diagnostic Messages
levels Levels Attributes
backsolve Solve an Upper or Lower Triangular System
base-defunct Defunct Functions in Package base
library Loading/Attaching and Listing of Packages
Hyperbolic Hyperbolic Functions
EnvVar Environment Variables
library.dynam Loading DLLs from Packages
missing Does a Formal Argument have a Value?
NumericConstants Numeric Constants
Ops.Date Operators on the Date Class
capabilities Report Capabilities of this Build of R
mode The (Storage) Mode of an Object
format.pval Format P Values
RdUtils Utilities for Processing Rd Files
name Names and Symbols
function Function Definition
Recall Recursive Calling
cat Concatenate and Print
funprog Common Higher-Order Functions in Functional Programming Languages
numeric_version Numeric Versions
gl Generate Factor Levels
Sys.getenv Get Environment Variables
match Value Matching
Sys.getpid Get the Process ID of the R Session
grep Pattern Matching and Replacement
Sys.sleep Suspend Execution for a Time Interval
match.arg Argument Verification Using Partial Matching
Sys.time Get Current Date and Time
maxCol Find Maximum Position in Matrix
chartr Character Translation and Casefolding
interactive Is R Running Interactively?
chkDots Warn About Extraneous Arguments in the "..." of Its Caller
any Are Some Values True?
aperm Array Transposition
curlGetHeaders Retrieve Headers from URLs
cut.POSIXt Convert a Date or Date-Time Object to a Factor
mean Arithmetic Mean
invisible Change the Print Mode to Invisible
nrow The Number of Rows/Columns of an Array
Extract Extract or Replace Parts of an Object
is.recursive Is an Object Atomic or Recursive?
is.single Is an Object of Single Precision Type?
octmode Display Numbers in Octal
La_version LAPACK Version
attach Attach Set of R Objects to Search Path
ns-dblcolon Double Colon and Triple Colon Operators
attr Object Attributes
.bincode Bin a Numeric Vector
pmatch Partial String Matching
labels Find Labels from Object
bindenv Binding and Environment Locking, Active Bindings
polyroot Find Zeros of a Real or Complex Polynomial
path.expand Expand File Paths
call Function Calls
pcre_config Report Configuration Options for PCRE
callCC Call With Current Continuation
chol The Choleski Decomposition
proc.time Running Time of R
print.default Default Printing
prod Product of Vector Elements
readRDS Serialization Interface for Single Objects
readRenviron Set Environment Variables from a File
Last.value Value of Last Evaluated Expression
lapply Apply a Function over a List or Vector
chol2inv Inverse from Choleski (or QR) Decomposition
prmatrix Print Matrices, Old-style
ls List Objects
conflicts Search for Masked Objects on the Search Path
NA ‘Not Available’ / Missing Values
remove Remove Objects from a Specified Environment
NULL The Null Object
dcf Read and Write Data in DCF Format
quit Terminate an R Session
debug Debug a Function
dataframeHelpers Data Frame Auxiliary Functions
connections Functions to Manipulate Connections (Files, URLs, ...)
make.names Make Syntactically Valid Names
date System Date and Time
difftime Time Intervals / Differences
round.POSIXt Round / Truncate Data-Time Objects
dim Dimensions of an Object
memCompress In-memory Compression and Decompression
double Double-Precision Vectors
exists Is an Object Defined?
expand.grid Create a Data Frame from All Combinations of Factor Variables
memlimits Query and Set Heap Size Limits
seq.Date Generate Regular Sequences of Dates
names The Names of an Object
nargs The Number of Arguments to a Function
Round Rounding of Numbers
range Range of Values
dput Write an Object to a File or Recreate it
readChar Transfer Character Strings To and From Connections
factor Factors
formals Access to and Manipulation of the Formal Arguments
file.access Ascertain File Accessibility
ns-topenv Top Level Environment
seq.POSIXt Generate Regular Sequences of Times
Special Special Functions of Mathematics
numeric Numeric Vectors
parse Parse R Expressions
readLines Read Text Lines from a Connection
Sys.glob Wildcard Expansion on File Paths
paste Concatenate Strings
slotOp Extract or Replace A Slot
pos.to.env Convert Positions in the Search Path to Environments
structure Attribute Specification
strtrim Trim Character Strings to Specified Display Widths
socketSelect Wait on Socket Connections
taskCallbackManager Create an R-level Task Callback Manager
pretty Pretty Breakpoints
Sys.info Extract System and User Information
qr The QR Decomposition of a Matrix
taskCallbackNames Query the Names of the Current Internal Top-Level Task Callbacks
format Encode in a Common Format
showConnections Display Connections
file.path Construct Path to File
traceback Get and Print Call Stacks
tracemem Trace Copying of Objects
UseMethod Class Methods
Vectorize Vectorize a Scalar Function
validUTF8 Check if a Character Vector is Validly Encoded
grouping Grouping Permutation
append Vector Merging
vector Vectors
apply Apply Functions Over Array Margins
gzcon (De)compress I/O Through Connections
icuSetCollate Setup Collation by ICU
sign Sign Function
QR.Auxiliaries Reconstruct the Q, R, or X Matrices from a QR Object
file.show Display One or More Text Files
identical Test Objects for Exact Equality
find.package Find Packages
regex Regular Expressions as used in R
regmatches Extract or Replace Matched Substrings
strptime Date-time Conversion Functions to and from Character
findInterval Find Interval Numbers or Indices
strrep Repeat the Elements of a Character Vector
getCallingDLL Compute DLL for Native Interface Call
row Row Indexes
getDLLRegisteredRoutines Reflectance Information for C/Fortran routines in a DLL
switch Select One of a List of Alternatives
hexmode Display Numbers in Hexadecimal
sys.parent Functions to Access the Function Call Stack
as.data.frame Coerce to a Data Frame
jitter ‘Jitter’ (Add Noise) to Numbers
row.names Get and Set Row Names for Data Frames
lazyLoad Lazy Load a Database of R Objects
kappa Compute or Estimate the Condition Number of a Matrix
as.environment Coerce to an Environment Object
bitwise Bitwise Logical Operations
unique Extract Unique Elements
seq Sequence Generation
sequence Create A Vector of Sequences
unlink Delete Files and Directories
warning Warning Messages
iconv Convert Character Vector between Encodings
warnings Print Warning Messages
length Length of an Object
writeLines Write Lines to a Connection
body Access to and Manipulation of the Body of a Function
xtfrm Auxiliary Function for Sorting and Ranking
sink Send R Output to a File
slice.index Slice Indexes in an Array
is.language Is an Object a Language Object?
is.object Is an Object ‘internally classed’?
license The R License Terms
strsplit Split the Elements of a Character Vector
srcfile References to Source Files and Code
sprintf Use C-style String Formatting Commands
list Lists -- Generic and Dotted Pairs
list.files List the Files in a Directory/Folder
list2env From A List, Build or Add To an Environment
bquote Partial substitution in expressions
make.unique Make Character Strings Unique
strtoi Convert Strings to Integers
mapply Apply a Function to Multiple List or Vector Arguments
matmult Matrix Multiplication
svd Singular Value Decomposition of a Matrix
match.call Argument Matching
match.fun Extract a Function Specified by Name
browser Environment Browser
commandArgs Extract Command Line Arguments
comment Query or Set a "comment" Attribute
matrix Matrices
normalizePath Express File Paths in Canonical Form
NotYet Not Yet Implemented Functions and Unused Arguments
nchar Count the Number of Characters (or Bytes or Width)
nlevels The Number of Levels of a Factor
sweep Sweep out Array Summaries
cut Convert Numeric to Factor
data.class Object Classes
delayedAssign Delay Evaluation
table Cross Tabulation and Table Creation
tabulate Tabulation for Vectors
ns-hooks Hooks for Namespace Events
on.exit Function Exit Code
deparse Expression Deparsing
options Options Settings
eigen Spectral Decomposition of a Matrix
transform Transform an Object, for Example a Data Frame
encodeString Encode Character Vector as for Printing
files File Manipulation
ns-internals Namespace Internals
rawConversion Convert to or from Raw Vectors
print Print Values
files2 Manipulation of Directories and File Permissions
readBin Transfer Binary Data To and From Connections
rep Replicate Elements of Vectors and Lists
replace Replace Values in a Vector
trimws Remove Leading/Trailing Whitespace
sample Random Samples and Permutations
save Save R Objects
gc Garbage Collection
search Give Search Path for R Objects
gc.time Report Time Spent in Garbage Collection
grepRaw Pattern Matching for Raw Vectors
seek Functions to Reposition Connections
print.data.frame Printing Data Frames
userhooks Functions to Get and Set Hooks for Load, Attach, Detach and Unload
groupGeneric S3 Group Generic Functions
source Read R Code from a File, a Connection or Expressions
rank Sample Ranks
utf8Conversion Convert Integer Vectors to or from UTF-8-encoded Character Vectors
withVisible Return both a Value and its Visibility
rapply Recursively Apply a Function to a List
identity Identity Function
ifelse Conditional Element Selection
write Write Data to a File
readline Read a Line from the Terminal
reg.finalizer Finalization of Objects
zutils Miscellaneous Internal/Programming Utilities
split Divide into Groups and Reassemble
isS4 Test for an S4 object
sum Sum of Vector Elements
rowsum Give Column Sums of a Matrix or Data Frame, Based on a Grouping Variable
isSymmetric Test if a Matrix or other Object is Symmetric (Hermitian)
summary Object Summaries
sQuote Quote Text
serialize Simple Serialization Interface
t Matrix Transpose
system2 Invoke a System Command
libPaths Search Paths for Packages
libcurlVersion Report Version of libcurl
setTimeLimit Set CPU and/or Elapsed Time Limits
tapply Apply a Function Over a Ragged Array
logical Logical Vectors
taskCallback Add or Remove a Top-Level Task Callback
lower.tri Lower and Upper Triangular Part of a Matrix
memory.profile Profile the Usage of Cons Cells
merge Merge Two Data Frames
solve Solve a System of Equations
noquote Class for ‘no quote’ Printing of Character Strings
norm Compute the Norm of a Matrix
weekdays Extract Parts of a POSIXt or Date Object
sort Sorting or Ordering Vectors
ns-load Loading and Unloading Name Spaces
stop Stop Function Execution
stopifnot Ensure the Truth of R Expressions
ns-reflect.Rd Namespace Reflection Support
which Which indices are TRUE?
strwrap Wrap Character Strings to Format Paragraphs
which.min Where is the Min() or Max() or first TRUE or FALSE ?
subset Subsetting Vectors, Matrices and Data Frames
with Evaluate an Expression in a Data Environment
sys.source Parse and Evaluate Expressions from a File
order Ordering Permutation
system Invoke a System Command
outer Outer Product of Arrays
prop.table Express Table Entries as Fraction of Marginal Table
pushBack Push Text Back on to a Connection
raw Raw Vectors
tilde Tilde Operator
rawConnection Raw Connections
timezones Time Zones
toString Convert an R Object to a Character String
rev Reverse Elements
zapsmall Rounding of Numbers: Zapping Small Ones to Zero
trace Interactive Tracing and Debugging of Calls to a Function or Method
zpackages Listing of Packages
rle Run Length Encoding
scale Scaling and Centering of Matrix-like Objects
scan Read Data Values
sets Set Operations
shQuote Quote Strings for Use in OS Shells
standardGeneric Formal Method System -- Dispatching S4 Methods
startsWith Does String Start or End With Another String?
substitute Substituting and Quoting Expressions
substr Substrings of a Character Vector
system.file Find Names of R System Files
system.time CPU Time Used
tempfile Create Names for Temporary Files
textConnection Text Connections
try Try an Expression Allowing Error Recovery
typeof The Type of an Object
unlist Flatten Lists
unname Remove names or dimnames
.Machine Numerical Characteristics of the Machine
.Script Scripting Language Interface
Control Control Flow
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Priority base
License Part of R 3.6.0
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